Yeast Infection

Phototherapy

Photomed Laser Surg. 2005 Jun;23(3):328-32.

Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Candida albicans Growth in Patients with Denture Stomatitis.

Maver-Biscanin M, Mravak-Stipetic M, Jerolimov V.

Department of Prosthodontics, Clinical Hospital Centre, Zagreb, Croatia.

Objective: The purpose of our report is to present the effect of low-level laser therapy on Candida albicans growth and palatal inflammation in two patients with denture stomatitis.

Background Data: The most common oral mucosal disorder in denture wearers is denture stomatitis, a condition that is usually associated with the presence of the yeast Candida albicans. Different treatment methods have been suggested to treat this symptom, none of which is proven to be absolutely effective.

Methods: Two denture-wearing patients, both with palatal inflammation diagnosed as Newton type II denture stomatitis were treated with low-power semiconductor diode laser (BTL-2000, Prague, Czech Republic) at different wavelengths (685 and 830 nm) for 5 d consecutively. In both patients, palatal mucosa and acrylic denture base were irradiated in noncontact mode (probe distance of 0.5 cm from irradiated area) with different exposure times-5 min (830 nm, 3.0 J/cm(2), 60 mW) and 10 min (685 nm, 3.0 J/cm(2), 30 mW). The effect of laser light on fungal growth in vivo was evaluated after the final treatment using the swab method and semiquantitative estimation of Candida albicans colonies growth on agar plates. The severity of inflammation was evaluated using clinical criteria.

Results: After lowlevel laser treatment, the reduction of yeast colonies on the agar plates was observed and palatal inflammation was diminished.

Conclusion: LLLT is effective in the treatment of denture stomatitis. Further placebo controlled studies are in progress.

Ter Arkh. 1996;68(2):23-4.

 The efficacy of high-intensity laser irradiation in the combined treatment of patients with esophageal candidiasis.

[Article in Russian]

Preobrazhenskii VN, Kasatkin NN.

High-intensity impulse laser radiation proved effective in 23 patients with esophageal candidiasis. The highest effect was achieved in its use with nistatin. In low laser efficacy radiation should be combined with transendoscopic administration of granulocytes concentrate. This produced clinico-endoscopic remission in 98.3% of the cases.

A comparison between laser therapy and drug therapy in the treatment of vaginitis

Passeniouk A M, Michailov V A.

30 women with non-specific vaginitis and vaginal candidiasis were treated with LLLT and topical chlorhexidine application daily for ten days. 20 women with the same condition were treated with metronidazole (10 g as course dose) and fluconozole (150 mg single dose) and vaginal application of metronidazole. The results suggest that local laser therapy is able to remove signs of vaginitis more efficiently than drug therapy. Repair of normal vaginal microflora was significantly faster in the laser group. There were no side effects in the laser group whereas there were women on drug therapy who reported side effects.

Phototherapy + Sensitizers

Photomed Laser Surg. 2010 Aug;28 Suppl 1:S67-72.

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: photodynamic antimicrobial effects of malachite green on Staphylococcus, enterobacteriaceae, and Candida.

Junqueira JC, Ribeiro MA, Rossoni RD, Barbosa JO, Querido SM, Jorge AO.

Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry of São José dos Campos, São Paulo State University/UNESP, São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil. juliana@fosjc.unesp.br

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated in vitro the photodynamic antimicrobial effects of the photosensitizer malachite green on clinical strains of Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, and Candida.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six microbial strains isolated from the oral cavity of patients undergoing prolonged antibiotic therapy, including 12 Staphylococcus, 12 Enterobacteriaceae, and 12 Candida strains, were studied. The number of cells of each microorganism was standardized to 10(6) cells/mL. Twenty-four assays were carried out for each strain according to the following experimental conditions: gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser and photosensitizer (n = 6, L+P+), laser and physiologic solution (n = 6, L+P-), photosensitizer (n = 6, L-P+), and physiologic solution (n = 6, L-P-). Next, cultures were prepared on brain-heart infusion agar for the growth of Staphylococcus and Enterobacteriaceae, and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the growth of Candida, and incubated for 48 h at 37 degrees C. The results are reported as the number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL) and were analyzed with analysis of variance and the Tukey test.

RESULTS: The Staphylococcus, enterobacterial, and Candida strains were sensitive to photodynamic therapy with malachite green (L+P+). A reduction of approximately 7 log(10) for Staphylococcus, 6 log(10) for enterobacteria, and 0.5 log(10) for the genus Candida. Significant statistical differences were observed between the L+P+ groups and the control groups (L-P-).

CONCLUSION: The Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, and Candida strains studied were sensitive to photodynamic therapy with malachite green.

Lasers Med Sci. 2010 May;25(3):385-9. Epub 2009 Jul 5.

Comparison of the photodynamic fungicidal efficacy of methylene blue, toluidine blue, malachite green and low-power laser irradiation alone against Candida albicans.

Souza RC, Junqueira JC, Rossoni RD, Pereira CA, Munin E, Jorge AO.

Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry of São José dos Campos, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Francisco José Longo 777, São Dimas, São José dos Campos 12245-000, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

This study was to evaluate specific effects of photodynamic therapy (energy density 15.8 J/cm(2), 26.3 J/cm(2) and 39.5 J/cm(2)) using methylene blue, toluidine blue and malachite green as photosensitizers and low-power laser irradiation on the viability of Candida albicans. Suspensions of C. albicans containing 10(6) cells/ml were standardized in a spectrophotometer. For each dye, 120 assays, divided into four groups according to the following experimental conditions, were carried out: laser irradiation in the presence of the photosensitizer; laser irradiation only; treatment with the photosensitizer only; no exposure to laser light or photosensitizer. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto Sabouraud dextrose agar for the determination of the number of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml). The results were subjected to analysis of variance and the Tukey test (P < 0.05). Photodynamic therapy using the photosensitizers tested was effective in reducing the number of C. albicans.. The number of CFU/ml was reduced by between 0.54 log(10) and 3.07 log(10) and depended on the laser energy density used. Toluidine blue, methylene blue and malachite green were effective photosensitizers in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy against C. albicans, as was low-power laser irradiation alone.

J Microbiol. 2009 Oct;47(5):619-23. Epub 2009 Oct 24.

The photodynamic effect of methylene blue and toluidine blue on Candida albicans is dependent on medium conditions.

Carvalho GG, Felipe MP, Costa MS.

Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento-IP&D, Universidade do Vale do Paraíba-UNIVAP, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

Due to the increased number of immunocompromised patients, the infections associated with the pathogen of the genus Candida and other fungi have increased dramatically. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) has been presented as a potential antimicrobial therapy, in a process that combines light and a photosensitizing drug, which promotes a phototoxic response by the treated cells. In this work, we studied the effects of the different medium conditions during PACT, using either methylene blue (MB) or toluidine blue (TB) on Candida albicans. The inhibition of the growth produced by PACT was decreased for different pH values (6.0, 7.0, and 8.0) in a buffered medium. The phototoxic effects were observed only in the presence of saline (not buffered medium). PACT was modulated by calcium in a different manner using either MB or TB. Also when using MB both verapamil or sodium azide were able to decrease the phototoxic effects on the C. albicans. These results show that PACT is presented as a new and promising antifungal therapy, however, new studies are necessary to understand the mechanism by which this event occurs.

Mycoses. 2009 Mar;52(2):154-60. Epub 2008 Jun 21.

Growth of Candida species on complete dentures: effect of microwave disinfection.

Sanitá PV, Vergani CE, Giampaolo ET, Pavarina AC, Machado AL.

Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP-São Paulo State University, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

Microwave disinfection of complete dentures has been recommended to treat denture stomatitis in non-immune compromised patients. Oral candidiasis is a frequent manifestation of HIV infection. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of microwave irradiation on the disinfection of complete dentures inoculated with American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and HIV isolates of five species of Candida. Fifty dentures were made, sterilised and inoculated with the tested microorganisms (C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis). After incubation (37 degrees C/48 h), dentures were microwaved (650 W/3 min). Non-irradiated dentures were used as positive controls. Replicate aliquots of suspensions were plated at dilutions 10(-1) to 10(-4) and incubated (37 degrees C/48 h). Colony counts (cfu ml(-1)) were quantified. Dentures were also incubated at 37 degrees C for 7 days. Data were analysed with 2-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (alpha = 0.05). Dentures contaminated with all Candida species showed sterilisation after microwave irradiation. All control dentures showed microbial growth on the plates. The cfu ml(-1) for C. glabrata was higher than those of C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis whereas the cfu ml(-1) for C. krusei was lower. The cfu ml(-1) for clinical isolates was higher than those of ATCC yeast. Microwave irradiation for 3 min at 650 W resulted in sterilisation of all complete dentures.

Klin Oczna. 2009;111(1-3):15-7.

In vitro photodynamic properties of methylene blue in a combination with laser illumination at 630 nm concerning Candida albicans.

Pasyechnikova N, Zborovskaya O, Kustrin T.

State Institution The Filatov’ s Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy of AMS of Ukraine, Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Uveitis.

Abstract

The study had to define influence of combined applications of laser radiation and methylene blue (MB) on pathogenic culture of Candida albicans in vitro. The experimental study was done at standard techniques of method of cultivations in a broth. The laser irradiation of cultures was done at once after addition of MB in concentration 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2%. During studying action of MB in dark, influence of MB to the growth of test-shtam without laser radiation, were prepared fluid Gissa’s broth with glucose without Andrede’s indicator. Activation of MB was done by laser with wave length 630 nm during 3 or 5 min. All experiments were passed in 4 parallels and 3 repeats. Maximal suppression of growth of microorganisms was noted in group with using 0.1% MB with laser radiation 3 minutes without centrifugation after 24 hours. Maximal suppression of growth was noted in group after centrifugation with 0.05% MB with exposure of laser 3 min. after 48 hours. Sensitivity of pathogenic culture of Candida albicans to application of B and laser raises accordingly to increase of concentration of MB.

Lasers Med Sci. 2009 Jan;24(1):109-12. Epub 2007 Dec 22.

Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with methylene blue increases membrane permeability in Candida albicans.

Giroldo LM, Felipe MP, de Oliveira MA, Munin E, Alves LP, Costa MS.

Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (IP&D), Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is a potential antimicrobial therapy that combines light and a photosensitizing drug, promoting a phototoxic effect on the treated cells, in general via oxidative damage. In this work we studied the effect of PACT, using methylene blue (MB), on the permeability of Candida albicans membrane. Our results demonstrated that the combination of MB and laser (684 nm) promoted a decrease in Candida growth. The inhibition was more pronounced in the presence of 0.05 mg/ml MB and with an energy density of 28 J/cm(2). The decrease in Candida growth was associated with an increase in membrane permeabilization. Thus, we suggest that a PACT mechanism using MB can be related to damage in the plasma membranes of the cells.

J Biosci. 2008 Jun;33(2):231-7.

Photodynamic effect of light-emitting diode light on cell growth inhibition induced by methylene blue.

Peloi LS, Soares RR, Biondo CE, Souza VR, Hioka N, Kimura E.

Chemistry Department, State University of Maringa, Parana, Brazil.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to propose the use of red light-emitting diode (LED) as an alternative light source for methylene blue (MB) photosensitizing effect in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Its effectiveness was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 26923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 26922), Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) and Artemia salina. The maximum absorption of the LED lamps was at a wavelength of 663 nm, at intensities of 2,4,6 and 12 J.cm-2 for 10, 20, 30 and 60 min of exposure, respectively. Assays with and without LED exposure were carried out in plates containing MB at concentrations of 7 to 140.8 (micro) M for microorganisms and 13.35 to 668.5 (micro) M for microorganisms or microcrustaceans. The LED exposure induced more than 93.05%, 93.7% and 93.33% of growth inhibition for concentrations of 42.2 (micro)M for S.aureus (D-value=12.05 min) and 35.2 (micro)M for E.coli (D-value=11.51 min) and C.albicans (D-value=12.18 min), respectively after 20 min of exposure. LED exposure for 1 h increased the cytotoxic effect of MB against A.salina from 27% to 75%. Red LED is a promising light device for PDT that can effectively inhibit bacteria, yeast and microcrustacean growth.

Mycoses. 2007 Mar;50(2):140-7.

Candida albicans inactivation and cell membrane integrity damage by microwave irradiation.

Campanha NH, Pavarina AC, Brunetti IL, Vergani CE, Machado AL, Spolidorio DM.Department of Dentistry, Ponta Grossa State University, Paraná, Brazil.

Abstract

In indicating the microwave irradiation for disinfecting dentures it is necessary to see how this procedure influences Candida albicans integrity and viability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of microwaves to inactivate C. albicans and damage cell membrane integrity. Two 200-ml C. albicans (ATCC 10231) suspensions were obtained. A sterile denture was placed in a beaker containing the Experimental (ES) or the Control suspension (CS). ES was microwaved at 650 W for 6 min. Suspensions were optically counted using methylene blue dye uptake as indicative of membrane-damaged cells; spread on Agar Sabouraud dextrose (ASD) for viability assay; or spectrophotometrically measured at 550 nm. Cell-free solutions were submitted to content analyses of protein (Bradford and Pyrogallol red methods); Ca++ (Cresolftaleine complexone method); DNA (spectrophotometer measurements at 260 nm) and K+ (selective electrode technique). Data were analysed by Student’s t- or Wilcoxon z-tests (alpha = 0.05). All ES cells demonstrated cell membrane damage. Viable cells were non-existent in the ES ASD plates. No significant difference in optical density between ES and CS was observed (P=0.272). ES cells released significantly high protein (P<0.001, Bradford; P=0.005, Pyrogallol red), K+ (P<0.001), Ca++ (P=0.012) and DNA (P=0.046) contents. Microwaves inactivated C. albicans and damaged cell membrane integrity.

J Photochem Photobiol B. 2006 Apr 3;83(1):34-8. Epub 2006 Jan 18.

Photosensitization of different Candida species by low power laser light.

de Souza SC, Junqueira JC, Balducci I, Koga-Ito CY, Munin E, Jorge AO.

Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (IP&D), Universidade do vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), 12244-000, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil. sandcristina@yahoo.com.br

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the laser radiation (685 nm) associated with photosensitizers on viability of different species of Candida genus. Suspensions of Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis, containing 10(6) viable cells per milliliter were obtained with the aid of a Neubauer’s chamber. From each species, 10 samples of the cell suspension were irradiated with diode laser (685 nm) with 28 J/cm2 in the presence of methylene blue (0.1 mg/ml), 10 samples were only treated with methylene blue, 10 samples were irradiated with laser in the absence of the dye, 10 samples were treated with the dye and irradiated with laser light and 10 samples were exposed to neither the laser light nor to the methylene blue dye. From each sample, serial dilutions of 10(-2) and 10(-3) were obtained and aliquots of 0.1 ml of each dilution were plated in duplicate on Sabouraud dextrose agar. After incubation at 37 degrees C for 48 h, the number of colony-forming units (CFU/ml) was obtained and data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p<0.05). Laser radiation in the presence of methylene blue reduced the number of CFU/ml in 88.6% for C. albicans, 84.8% for C. dubliniensis, 91.6% for C. krusei and 82.3% for C. tropicalis. Despite this, only laser radiation or methylene blue did not reduce significantly the number of CFU/ml of Candida samples, except for C. tropicalis. It could be concluded that the photo activation of methylene blue by the red laser radiation at 685 nm presented fungicide effect on all Candida species studied.

Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2004 May;3(5):419-22. Epub 2004 Jan 28.

In vitro effect of 5-aminolaevulinic acid plus visible light on Candida albicans.

Monfrecola G, Procaccini EM, Bevilacqua M, Manco A, Calabro G, Santoianni P.

Dept. of Patologia Sistematica – Section of Dermatology, Napoli, Italy.

Abstract

Photodynamic therapy, currently used as an alternative technique for the treatment of superficial non-melanoma skin cancers, has been employed in vitro to kill different species of microorganisms. Here the development of Candida albicans colonies has been measured after application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) plus visible light (VIS) irradiation. C. albicans suspensions (10 colony forming units microl(-1)) have been prepared. For the experiment 30 microl of suspension have been incubated in the dark for 3 h, with increasing concentrations of ALA (125, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, 750, 1000 mg ml(-1)) and then irradiated with a fixed dose (40 J cm(-2)) of VIS. Immediately after the irradiative session, the C. albicans suspensions were disseminated on dishes containing a Sabouraud agar + CAF medium and cultured in the dark at 27 degree C; after 48 h colony development has been measured. In the same way four controls have been prepared: (i)C. albicans suspensions not treated with ALA-PDT; (ii)C. albicans suspensions incubated with increasing ALA concentrations without VIS; (iii)C. albicans suspensions irradiated with 40 J cm(-2) of VIS without ALA; (iv)C. albicans suspensions irradiated immediately after the addition of increasing concentrations of ALA without the 3 h incubation. Colonies treated with ALA-PDT have been studied with electron microscopy (E.M.). It was found that: (i) none of the controls prepared modified the development of C. albicans colonies; (ii) ALA plus VIS inhibited C. albicans growth in a concentration-dependent way: up to 250 mg ml of ALA concentrations did not affect C. albicans cells, 300 mg ml(-1) induced a 50% reduction in the number of colonies, a complete inhibition started from concentrations of 600 mg ml(-1); (iii) after ALA-PDT E.M. showed modifications of the cell membranes. From the results it is concluded ALA plus VIS light is able to kill C. albicans colonies, at least in vitro. Although other pharmacological approaches are available, further studies could show that PDT is a potential treatment for candidosis.

Ter Arkh. 1996;68(2):23-4.

 The efficacy of high-intensity laser irradiation in the combined treatment of patients with esophageal candidiasis.

[Article in Russian]

Preobrazhenskii VN, Kasatkin NN.

High-intensity impulse laser radiation proved effective in 23 patients with esophageal candidiasis. The highest effect was achieved in its use with nistatin. In low laser efficacy radiation should be combined with transendoscopic administration of granulocytes concentrate. This produced clinico-endoscopic remission in 98.3% of the cases.

J Oral Pathol Med. 1993 Sep;22(8):354-7.

Sensitization of Candida albicans to killing by low-power laser light.

Wilson M, Mia N.

Department of Microbiology, Institute of Dental Surgery, London, England.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine whether Candida albicans, and other Candida spp. responsible for HIV-associated candidosis, could be sensitised to killing by low-power laser light. Suspensions of C. albicans were treated with a number of potential photosensitisers, exposed to laser light from a Helium/Neon (HeNe) or Gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAs) laser for 120 s and survivors enumerated. Toluidine blue O (TBO), thionin and crystal violet were able to sensitise the yeast to killing by light from the HeNe laser (energy dose = 876 mJ at a density of 66.36 J/cm2), the kills achieved being 6.8 x 10(6) cfu/ml, 3.1 x 10(6) cfu/ml and 1.3 x 10(6) cfu/ml respectively. TBO was also able to sensitise several other Candida spp. to killing by HeNe laser light. Dihaematoporphyrin ester was not an effective photosensitiser under the conditions employed. Methylene blue, but not aluminium disulphonated phthalocyanine, was able to sensitise C. albicans to killing by light from the GaAs laser (energy dose 1.32 J at a density of 2.04 J/cm2). The viability of the yeast was not affected by exposure to laser light in the absence of the photosensitisers. As killing of dye-sensitised C. albicans, and other Candida spp., could be achieved by exposure to low-power laser light for short periods of time, this approach merits further investigation as a potential therapeutic modality for HIV-associated candidosis.

A comparison between laser therapy and drug therapy in the treatment of vaginitis

Passeniouk A M, Michailov V A.

30 women with non-specific vaginitis and vaginal candidiasis were treated with LLLT and topical chlorhexidine application daily for ten days. 20 women with the same condition were treated with metronidazole (10 g as course dose) and fluconozole (150 mg single dose) and vaginal application of metronidazole. The results suggest that local laser therapy is able to remove signs of vaginitis more efficiently than drug therapy. Repair of normal vaginal microflora was significantly faster in the laser group. There were no side effects in the laser group whereas there were women on drug therapy who reported side effects.

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