Trauma

Photomed Laser Surg.  2012 Jan 27. [Epub ahead of print]

LED Phototherapy Improves Healing of Nipple Trauma: A Pilot Study.

Chaves ME, Araújo AR, Santos SF, Pinotti M, Oliveira LS.

Source

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horionte, Brazil

Abstract

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a LED phototherapy prototype apparatus in the healing of nipple trauma in breastfeeding women.

Background data: There is no scientific evidence of an effective treatment for nipple trauma.

Methods: The experimental group was treated with orientation on nipple care and adequate breastfeeding techniques in addition to active LED phototherapy. The control group was treated with orientation on nipple care and adequate breastfeeding techniques in addition to placebo LED phototherapy. Participants were treated twice a week, for a total of eight sessions. Healing of the nipple lesions was measured by a reduction in their area, and decrease in pain intensity was measured in accordance with an 11-point Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale and a standard 7-point patient global impression of change.

Results: Statistically significant reductions in measured nipple lesion area (p<0.001) were observed for both the experimental and control groups with an increase in the number of treatment sessions. A significant difference between the experimental and control groups was observed for the healing of nipple lesions (p<0.001). The pain intensity was significantly reduced only in the experimental group (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Preliminary results demonstrated the prototype apparatus for LED phototherapy to be an effective tool in accelerating the healing of nipple trauma.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2010 Aug 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Influence of Laser Photobiomodulation on Collagen IV During Skeletal Muscle Tissue Remodeling After Injury in Rats.

Baptista J, Martins MD, Pavesi VC, Bussadori SK, Fernandes KP, Júnior DD, Ferrari RA.

1 Universidade Nove de Julho- UNINOVE , São Paulo, Brazil .

Abstract

Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of GaAlAs low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on collagen IV remodeling of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in rats after cryolesion.

Background: Considerable interest exists in skeletal muscle regeneration in situations such as repair after exercise-induced muscle injury, after muscle transplantation, in muscular dystrophy, exercise-induced muscle injury, and the recovery of strength after atrophy due to disuse. A number of studies have demonstrated the potential of LLLT in facilitating the muscle-healing process; however, no consensus is found in the literature regarding the best laser-irradiation parameters.

Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n = 45) were used and randomly divided into three groups: control (n = 5); nontreated cryolesioned group (n = 20), and LLLT-cryolesioned group (n = 20). The cryolesioned groups were analyzed at 1, 7, 14, and 21 days after the injury procedure. Laser irradiation was performed 3 times per week on the injured region by using the GaAlAs laser (660 nm; beam spot of 0.04 cm(2), output power of 20 mW, power density of 500 mW/cm(2), and energy density of 5 J/cm(2), for 10 sec). The muscles were removed, frozen, cryosectioned, and then stained with hematoxylin-eosin for the visualization of general morphology or used for immunohistochemical analysis of collagen IV.

Results: It was demonstrated that LLLT promotes an increase in collagen IV immunolabeling in skeletal muscle in the first 7 days after acute trauma caused by cryoinjury, but does not modify the duration of the tissue-repair process. Even with LLLT, the injured muscle tissue needs approximately 21 days to achieve the same state of organization as that in the noninjured muscle.

Conclusion: The collagen IV content is modulated in regenerating skeletal muscle under LLLT, which might be associated with better tissue outcome, although the histologic analysis did not detect tissue improvement in the LLLT group.

Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2010 Jun;11(2):71-6.

Lasers in dental traumatology.

Olivi G, Caprioglio C, Genovese MD.

Visiting Professor in Restorative Dentistry, University of Genoa Private practice in Rome. olivi.g@tiscali.it

Abstract

AIM: Dental traumas are frequent in children. They can be complex events and sometimes real emergencies. Since very little attention is devoted to this topic in the international literature and there are no well-coded laser guidelines for these specific clinical events, our aim is to consider and present those situations in which laser-assisted therapy can offer new treatment possibilities. The authors’ aim is to stimulate more extensive scientific research in this area, which might not only increase the use of these technologies, but also improve outcomes and reduce complications connected to dental trauma, particularly in children. Furthermore, laser-assisted therapies drastically reduce the need for analgesics and anti- inflammatory medications compared with conventional procedures. CONCLUSION: Using laser equipment to obtain anaesthesia is another challenge, while the use of low power setting for desensitising tissue and to obtain anaesthesia is also an open field.

J Photochem Photobiol B. 2009 Dec 2;97(3):145-51. Epub 2009 Sep 11.

Effect of phototherapy with low intensity laser on local and systemic immunomodulation following focal brain damage in rat.

Moreira MS, Velasco IT, Ferreira LS, Ariga SK, Barbeiro DF, Meneguzzo DT, Abatepaulo F, Marques MM.

LIM-51, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Brain injury is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in trauma patients, but controversy still exists over therapeutic management for these patients. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of phototherapy with low intensity lasers on local and systemic immunomodulation following cryogenic brain injury. Laser phototherapy was applied (or not-controls) immediately after cryogenic brain injury performed in 51 adult male Wistar rats. The animals were irradiated twice (3 h interval), with continuous diode laser (gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs), 780 nm, or indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphide (InGaAlP), 660 nm) in two points and contact mode, 40 mW, spot size 0.042 cm(2), 3 J/cm(2) and 5 J/cm(2) (3 s and 5 s, respectively). The experimental groups were: Control (non-irradiated), RL3 (visible red laser/ 3 J/cm(2)), RL5 (visible red laser/5 J/cm(2)), IRL3 (infrared laser/3 J/cm(2)), IRL5 (infrared laser/5 J/cm(2)). The production of interleukin-1IL-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was analyzed by enzyme immunoassay technique (ELISA) test in brain and blood samples. The IL-1beta concentration in brain of the control group was significantly reduced in 24 h (p<0.01). This reduction was also observed in the RL5 and IRL3 groups. The TNF-alpha and IL-6 concentrations increased significantly (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively) in the blood of all groups, except by the IRL3 group. The IL-6 levels in RL3 group were significantly smaller than in control group in both experimental times. IL-10 concentration was maintained stable in all groups in brain and blood. Under the conditions of this study, it is possible to conclude that the laser phototherapy can affect TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 levels in the brain and in circulation in the first 24 h following cryogenic brain injury.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2009 Oct 27. [Epub ahead of print]

The Association of Low and High Laser Treatments on Self-Inflicted Lip Injury: A Case Report.

Santos MT, de Souza Merli LA, Guare RO, Ferreira MC.

1 Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul , São Paulo, Brazil .

Objective: Report a clinical case of surgical lip lesion removal owing to self-injury in a 9-year-old male quadriplegic, spastic cerebral palsy (CP) patient using low and high lasers in association. Background: Various management methods for oral trauma have been suggested, depending on the severity, frequency, and cause of injury, including medication, behavioral techniques, and oral appliances or dental extractions. Methods: Initially, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was used on the injured labial tissue measuring 2.2 cm externally and 3.4 cm in the internal mucosal, followed by surgical removal using a CO(2) laser. After 30 days, a significant reduction in injury to the oral tissues was observed, and the region presented normal color and good healing conditions. Conclusion: The association of different laser therapies to remove and heal a lip lesion owing to self-injurious behavior was effective and promoted improvement in the patient’s quality of life by establishing painless mastication.

J Rehabil Res Dev. 2009;46(4):543-54.

Low-level laser therapy with pulsed infrared laser accelerates third-degree burn healing process in rats.

Ezzati A, Bayat M, Taheri S, Mohsenifar Z.

Shahid Beheshti University, MC, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

This study investigated the influence of pulsed low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing of a third-degree burn in a rat model. Two third-degree burns (distal and proximal) were made in the skin of 74 rats. Rats were divided into four groups. In group 1, the distal burn received LLLT with laser switched off; in groups 2 and 3, distal burns were treated with a 3,000 Hz-pulsed infrared diode laser with 2.3 and 11.7 J/cm(2) energy densities, respectively. In group 4, the distal burns were treated topically with 0.2% nitrofurazone. The proximal burn of all groups was considered a control burn. We assessed the response to treatment both microbiologically and macroscopically. The chi-square test showed that the incidence of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus, and diphtheria decreased significantly in laser-treated groups compared with other groups. Independent sample t-test showed that LLLT with 11.7 J/cm(2) energy density significantly increased wound-closure rate at 3 and 4 weeks after burning compared with their relevant control burns (p = 0.018 and p = 0.01, respectively). Pulsed LLLT with 11.7 J/cm(2)/890 nm of a third-degree burn in a rat model significantly increased wound-closure rate compared with control burns.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2008 Feb;26(1):1-5.

Effect of low-level laser therapy on mast cells in second-degree burns in rats.

Vasheghani MM, Bayat M, Rezaei F, Bayat A, Karimipour M.

Paramedical Faculty, Shaheed Beheshti University, M.C., Tehran, Iran.

Comment in:

  • Photomed Laser Surg. 2009 Feb;27(1):151; author reply 151.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser would affect mast cell number and degranulation in second-degree burns in rats. Background Data: LLLT has been recently applied to stimulate the wound healing process.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five rats were randomly allocated to one of five groups. A deep second-degree burn was inflicted on all rats except those in the control group. In the sham-exposed group burns remained untreated. In the two laser-treated groups, the burns were irradiated every day by LLLT, with energy densities of 1.2 and 2.4 J/cm(2). In the fifth group the burns were treated topically with 0.2% nitrofurazone cream every day. The unburned skin of the rats in the control group were used for baseline study. The effects on mast cell number and degranulation were assessed by counting the number of intact and degranulated mast cells in sections fixed in formalin and stained with toluidine blue.

RESULTS: On the seventh and 16th days post-burn, the type 1 mast cell count in the 2.4-J/cm(2) laser-treated group was significantly higher than that of the control group. On the 30th day, the total numbers of mast cells in the laser-treated groups were lower than those in the control and sham-exposed groups.

CONCLUSION: LLLT of deep second-degree cutaneous burns in rats significantly increased the number of intact mast cells during the inflammatory and proliferative phases of healing, and decreased the total number of mast cells during the remodeling phase.

Khirurgiia (Mosk). 1998;(5):40-2.

Intravascular laser irradiation of blood in treatment of traumatic abdominal organs injuries.

[Article in Russian]

Koshelev VN, Chalyk IuV.

The application of intravascular laser irradiation of the blood (ILIB) in combined postoperative intensive care in 28 patients with traumatic injuries of parenchymal organs and severe intraabdominal bleeding (more than 20% CBV) contributed to substantial improvement of the results of treatment and reduction of complications rate. ILIB boosts functional activity of leucocytes, normalizes the system of hemostasis and antioxidant defence.

Laser radiation to correct disorders of blood albumin transport in severe mechanical trauma

[Article in Russian]

Kravchenko-Berezhnaia NR, Moroz VV, Kozhura VL.

The paper provides evidence for that it is expedient to perform multi-stage intravascular low-intensity laser blood radiation in patients with severe mechanical trauma and massive blood loss in the early posttraumatic period. The use of laser radiation at a wavelength of 632.0 nm by inserting a disposable light guide (its end power was 1.5-2.0 mW, and the duration of a session–30 min) as part of complex therapy in this group of patients promotes the increase of plasma albumin transport ability and the general stimulation of natural detoxifixation mechanisms.