Sexually Transmitted Disease

BMC. Microbiol. 2012 Aug 15;12(1):176. [Epub ahead of print]

Inhibitory effects of 405 nm irradiation on Chlamydia trachomatis growth and characterization of the ensuing inflammatory response in HeLa cells.

Wasson CJ, Zourelias JL, Aardsma NA, Eells JT, Ganger MT, Schober JM, Skwor TA.

Abstract

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND:

Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular bacterium that resides in the conjunctival and reproductive tract mucosae and is responsible for an array of acute and chronic diseases. A percentage of these infections persist even after use of antibiotics, suggesting the need for alternative treatments. Previous studies have demonstrated anti-bacterial effects using different wavelengths of visible light at varying energy densities, though only against extracellular bacteria. We investigated the effects of visible light (405 and 670 nm) irradiation via light emitting diode (LEDs) on chlamydial growth in end cervical epithelial cells, HeLa, during active and penicillin-induced persistent infections. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of this photo treatment on the ensuing secretion of IL-6 and CCL2, two pro-inflammatory cytokines that have previously been identified as immunopathologic components associated with trichiasis in vivo.

RESULTS:

C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells were treated with 405 or 670 nm irradiation at varying energy densities (0 — 20 J/cm2). Bacterial growth was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analyzing the 16S: GAPDH ratio, while cell-free supernatants were examined for IL-6 and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2) production. Our results demonstrated a significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect on chlamydial growth during both active and persistent infections following 405 nm irradiation. Diminished bacterial load corresponded to lower IL-6 concentrations, but was not related to CCL2 levels. In vitro modeling of a persistent C. trachomatis infection induced by penicillin demonstrated significantly elevated IL-6 levels compared to C. trachomatis infection alone, though 405 nm irradiation had a minimal effect on this production.

CONCLUSION:

Together these results identify novel inhibitory effects of 405 nm violet light on the bacterial growth of intracellular bacterium C. trachomatis in vitro, which also coincides with diminished levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop.  2011 Jun;44(3):397-9.

Recurrent herpes simplex infections: laser therapy as a potential tool for long-term successful treatment.

Ferreira DC, Reis HL, Cavalcante FS, Santos KR, Passos MR.

Source

Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ.

Abstract

Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are the main infectious agents associated with oral and genital ulcerations. These infections are now widely recognized as sexually transmitted diseases. Among treatment options, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has shown promising clinical results as a longer-lasting suppression therapy. Two clinical cases are described with recurrent labial herpes for which LLLT was used. Following treatment, both patients remained symptom free during the 17-month clinical follow-up period.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech.  2010 Sep-Oct;(5):30-3.

Analysis of parameters of reproductive tract mucosal immunity in women with chlamydial infection before and after local magnetolaserotherapy.

[Article in Russian]

Gizinger OA, Dolgushin II, Letiaeva OI.

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of combined treatment with low-intensity laser radiation and magnetic field on neutrophil function in women presenting with Chlamydial infection. Dysfunction of neutrophil granulocytes in these patients was manifest in the first place as the decreased number of phagocytes and the low rate of phagocytosis. It was shown that the concentration of active oxygen species in neutrophils in the patients with Chlamydial infection was significantly smaller than in healthy women. The concurrent application of low-intensity laser radiation and a magnetic field not only stimulated phagocytosis but also increased intracellular production of active oxygen species especially under in vitro conditions. It is concluded that combined treatment with low-intensity laser radiation and magnetic field has beneficial effect on the parameters of mucosal immunity in the reproductive tract of women with Chlamydial infection.

Urologiia. 2007 May-Jun;(3):50-4, 56.

Efficacy of low-intensity laser radiation and antibacterial therapy in the treatment of chronic prostatitis in the presence of sexually transmitted infections.

[Article in Russian]

Ne?mark AI, Khrianin AA, Safina ON, Ne?mark BA, Kondrat’eva IuS.

We studied 94 patients with chronic prostatitis (CP) in combination with urogenital chlamydiasis. The patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 32 patients with bacterial prostatitis and sexually transmitted infection (STI). They were treated with fromilid in a dose 500 mg twice a day. Group 2 (n = 27) received also low-intensity laser radiation (LILR) on the prostatic gland. Group 3 patients (n = 35) with abacterial prostatitis were given fromilid (500 mg twice a day). We studied prostatic hemodynamics with color doppler mapping. A specific feature of prostatic vascularisation in CP and STI versus healthy subjects is heterogeneous decline of vessels density in ischemic zones with parallel decrease in these vessels diameter. A peripheral prostatic zone in CP patients with STI was characterized by lower vascularisation than central one. This deteriorates the course of the disease. The results of the study show that adjuvant LILR in CP patients with STI raises efficacy of therapy by 11%. Investigation of prostate vascularisation and hemodynamics of its vessels in CP patients with STI using transrectal ultrasonography and dopplerography provide detailed information about prostatic structure allowing for lesion zones. This facilitates choice of an optimal complex treatment with application of LELR in peripheral inflammation of the prostate.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2006 Sep-Oct;(5):20-3.

Low-intensity laser effects on local immunity of female reproductive system affected with chlamidia infection.

[Article in Russian]

Gizinger OA, Dolgushin II.

Low-intensity laser impact on the main effector functions of the cervical secretion neutrophils in females suffering from Chlamidia infection has been studied. Dysfunction of neutrophil granulocytes of the cervical secretion was revealed. This manifested in the decreased number of phagocytes and lower rates of phagocytosis. The study of cervical secretion neutrophils has found that the content of active intracellular forms of oxygen was decreased in patients compared to healthy subjects. Low-intensity laser stimulated not only phagocytosis but also intracellular generation of active oxygen forms. Thus, low-intensity laser eliminates dysfunction of cervical secretion neutrophils.

Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2006 Jul-Aug;(4):105-9.

Immunological and microbiological aspects of low intensity laser effect on the factors of local immunity of the reproductive tract in women with chlamydia infection.

[Article in Russian]

Dolgushin II, Gizinger OA, Telesheva LF.

Assessment of immunological and microbiological efficacy of Chlamydia cervicitis management was made by a complex method with a low intensity laser. The total number of leukocytes, percentage of viable cells and the number of neutrophils were detected in cervical secrets. Functional status of neutrophils was studied by a content of lysosomes on the ground of spontaneous and induced by latex HCT-reducing capacity, phagocytic activity. A system of cytokines was studied by interleukine level (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, IL-8) and IFN-gamma content in cervical mucus. Positive clinical effect of the local use of the low intensity laser for Chlamydia cervicitis treatment was accompanied by positive changes in immunological indices of cervical secret, normal concentration of cytokines in cervical secret, restoration of the number and functions of neutrophils. Local use of the low intensity laser contributed to decreased number of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms and their associations, and restored local flora.

Med Tekh. 2001 Nov-Dec;(6):42-4.

Milta-F: a magnetic infrared laser therapeutic apparatus with a photorecorder for diagnosis, prognostication and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the adnexa uteri.

[Article in Russian]

Isaev AK.

Laser biophotometry is an objective method to diagnose and to predict the course of inflammatory diseases of the uterine appendages. By taking into account its simplicity, reliability, and validity of findings, a MILTA apparatus should be recommended in additional studies of patients.

Alaska Med. 1999 Jan-Mar;41(1):13-5.

The effect of laser radiation on the metabolic processes of cellular membranes in pelvic inflammatory disease.

Kattakhodjaeva MH, Rakhimova LS.

First Tashkent State Medical University, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekestan.

The metabolic products of peroxide oxidation of cellular membrane lipids and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxidismutase in blood plasma was determined in 68 patients with acute pelvic inflammatory disease and exacerbation of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. The analyses were done before treatment, after routine antibiotic therapy, and after low energy laser radiation treatment. During acute inflammation and exacerbation of chronic inflammation, peroxide oxidation of cellular membrane lipids intensifies and antioxidant enzyme activity decreases. Helium-neon laser rays in addition to routine antibiotics appear to stabilize peroxide oxidation and normalize antioxidation enzyme activity more than antibiotics alone.

Proc. 2nd Congress World Association for Laser Therapy, Kansas City, USA, September 2-5 1998; p. 82-83.

Low level laser therapy of male genital tract chronic inflammations.

Gasparyan L et al.

Male genital tract chronic inflammations were treated by combinations of transdermal, transrectal (prostate gland) and intravenous HeNe laser irradiation. The energy of a 2 mW HeNe laser was applied via a light guide into a vein. The projections of the male genital organ and the inguinal areas were irradiated with a 890 nm 5W peak power cluster probe. For the transrectal prostate gland irradiation a 890 nm 15W peak power laser was used. 36 patients were given conventional medical therapy and another 36 were given LLLT in combination with medical therapy. Clinical and laboratory findings were statistically better in the LLLT group and relapse rate was lower. It is suggested that LLLT increases the local circulation and thus also improves the effect of antibiotics.

WALT 2-nd Congress (Kansas City, USA), 1998

LOW LEVEL LASER TERAPY OF MALE GENITAL TRACT CHRONIC INFLAMMATIONS

Levon V. Gasparyan, Samvel R. Grigoryan

INTRODUCTION
The authors summarized their experience of treating patients with mail genital tract chronic inflammations caused by sexually transmitted diseases (STD) (Chlamidial infection, Trichomoniasis, etc.) using low level laser therapy (LLLT). Evolution of antibiotic resis-tant strains, spreading of chronic latent infections complicated the treatment and required several courses of medicament therapy.

LLLT helps to overcome the problems. LLLT of such patients includes laser irradiation of blood, prostate gland and skin projections of male genitals. Laser irradiation activates immune system, increases the permeability of prostate gland tissues for antibiotics, has antiinflammatory, analgetic properties, activates spermatogenesis, activates local micro-circulation, and sex function.

The obtained results proved that the combination of LLLT with medicament therapy provides better and faster treatment results.

REVIEW AND THEORY
The incidence of chronic and latent forms of STDs has risen recently despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Changes in sexual behavior, imperfect and late diagnosis, lack of adequate laboratory facilities, poor cultural examinations, incomplete treatment as a result of usage of low quality and adulterated antibiotics, cases of non-professional and self-treatment, reinfection from infected, but not treated sex partners, evolution and spreading of antibiotic resistant strains complicated the treatment of STDs.

Several groups mentioned beneficial effects of LLLT in the treatment of male genital tract diseases. Sato et al. (1984) demonstrated that laser irradiation had potential to increase sperm motility in vitro. Therapeutic laser applied directly to testes at a dose of 1.3 J/cm2 has been successfully used in treatment of infertility (Hasan et al. 1989). Using HeNe laser applied directly to the scrotum, Miroshnikov and Reznikov (1989) found an immediate reduction in the pain, swelling, pyrexia and other symptoms of acute epididimitis. LLLT also reduced the necessity for surgical interventions. This group also reported about positive effects of HeNe laser irradiation in treatment of chronic intractable urethritis. LLLT produced reduction in pain, improvement in microscopic investigations, especially as regards the number of leukocytes. Such studies reported no side effects or complications so dangers associated with laser irradiation of or near the gonads are minimal. Koultchavenia (1997) found higher concentration of antibiotics in kidneys and prostate gland after local laser irradiation. Some studies showed the increase of sensitivity of microorganisms towards antibiotics after laser irradiation (Gorochov 1991, Avdoshin 1992). Kartachov (1994) mentioned that when some patients with bacterial latent urethritis started LLLT, Trichomonas vaginalis was found out in cultural studies. So laser irradiation could act like provocative test and help to diagnose latent STDs more precisely.

Duplik (1993) introduced a parameter “Specific Power Density” (mW/cm3) connected with both power characteristics of laser and optical properties of irradiated blood. Ovsjannikov (1997) suggested that calculation of energy absorbed in joules per cubic cm (J/cm3) of target organ tissues was physically more correct, than calculation of energy density in J/cm2 of irradiated skin.

The authors aimed to study the role and parametres of LLLT in the complex treatment of patients with male genital tract chronic intractable inflammations, caused by some STDs.

PROCEDURES
78 patients aged from 21 to 54 suffering from mail genital tract chronic inflammations (urethritis, prostatitis, vesiculitis, epididymo-orchitis) were divided to a medicament therapy group (group I, 36 patients) and medicament plus laser therapy group (group II, 42 patients). Subjective and objective methods of investigation were used to diagnose diseases and evaluate the treatment. Laboratory studies included microscopic and cultural examinations of specimens of urethral discharge, urine, prostatic fluid, sperm, blood, as well as ultrasound and other examinations. Provocative tests are used to make latent STDs diagnosis more reliable. Posttreatment cultures were studied to establish that the treatment was adequate.

Each patient of group II received 10-12 procedures of laser irradiation, including 3-4 LBI and 7-8 procedures of laser irradiation of skin projections of mail genitals and inguinal areas as well as transrectal irradiation of prostate gland. HeNe laser (632.8nm/ 2mW at the end of light-guide, inserted into a vein) was used for intravenous LBI. Pulsed IR laser cluster probe (12x890nm/5W pulse power) was used for irradiation of skin projections of male genitals. Pulsed IR diode laser probe (890nm/15W pulse power) with transrectally inserting fiberoptic probe was used for prostate gland irradiation. LLLT started simultaneously with antibiotic, antiinfalammatory and immune therapy.

RESULTS
Patients of group II reported (statistically reliable) faster resolution of symptoms of diseases (pain, dysuria, sex disorders), had better and more stable laboratory investigation reports (reduction and normalisation of leukocytes, elimination of microorganisms from specimens of urethral discharge, prostatic fluid, urine, sperm), grew of quantity and motility, as well as in percentage of normal forms of spermatozoa. Lower relapse rate for patients of group II (11%) than for patients of group I (18%) was recorded. No side effects or complications were detected. The authors estimated therapeutic 3D energy density for transrectal and cluster probe prostate gland irradiation.

The combination of intravenous LBI with local skin and prostate gland irradiation proved to be the most effective method of LLLT. The combination of medicament therapy and LLLT provides better and faster resolution of the symptoms and normalization in results of instrumental examinations.

DISCUSSION
Obtained results proved that laser therapy is an acceptable tool in the complex treatment of male genital tract chronic inflammations, caused by STDs. Our studies supported the opinion that acceleration of treatment was mainly the result of activation of immune system and increase of concentration of antibiotics in target organs.

More works are required to study laser light distribution in different tissues to determine the most effective 3D energy density for genital tract organs irradiation, combination of different wavelength lasers and methods of irradiation. Additional investigations are required to determine parametres of laser irradiation as the most promoting activity of immune system, increasing both microorganism sensitivity towards antibiotics and prostate gland permeability for antibiotics to create higher concentration of drugs in genital tract organs as well as to combine UV laser bactericidal action with the effect of antibiotics to achieve maximal medical effect.

COMPOSITE APPLICATION OF THE LOW-LEVEL LASER IRRADIATION (LLLI) AND OF BIOREGULATING PEPTU PROSTATILEN FOR THE TREATMENT OF SEXUAL DISTURBANCES CONDITIONED BY THE CHRONIC PROSTATITIS

V. Bondarcnko, A. Korobov

Ukrainian Research Institute of Pharmacotherapy of Endocrine Dis­eases, Research Institute of Laser Biology and Laser Medicine, Kharkov, Ukraine

The present research studies low-level laser irradiation the composite application of peptide bioregulator prostatilen and the LLLI for the treatment of the chronic prostatitis complicated by sexual disturbances. We have observed 32 patients at the age of 23-43 suffering from the chronic non-specific prostatitis. The patients have had numerous at­tempts to cure the disease and received various kinds of therapy. All the patients complained of the suppressed sexual function. Please note the fact that 12 patients received only this therapy, while the rest 20 underwent also a course of laser therapy which started after the 5-th injection of the medicine. Such semiconductor laser apparatus as “MOTYLEK-20” and “MURAVEY” (firm “Technica”) producing the laser irradiation with the wavelength of 0,89 nrn have been used. After the therapy which made use exclusively of prostatilen has been given, it turned out that in 50 % of the cases the erectile ability has been restored. The rapid ejaculation, however, remained in 75 % of the cases. The composite application of prostatilen and LLLI has improved the degree of the sexual activity more essentially. Here restora­tion of adequate erections has been found in 83,3 % of the cases. Only 25 % of the men still had the symptoms of the rapid ejaculation and of effaced orgasm. Thus, LLLI being applied to the prostate in the infrared range is successfully combined with the peptide bioregulator prostatilen for the treatment of the chronic non-specific prostatitis, as the medicine and the LLLI mutually reinforce the general medical effect. Such composite therapy substantially compensates the sexual function when the mentioned above pathology is observed.