Neurotoxicity Protection

Photochem Photobiol Sci.  2013 Oct;12(10):1895-902. doi: 10.1039/c3pp50036e.

Effects of a low-level semiconductor gallium arsenide laser on local pathological alterations induced by Bothrops moojeni snake venom.

Aranha de Sousa E1, Bittencourt JA, Seabra de Oliveira NK, Correia Henriques SV, dos Santos Picanço LC, Lobato CP, Ribeiro JR, Pereira WL, Carvalho JC,da Silva JO.
  • 1Toxicology Laboratory, Pharmaceutical Science Course, Federal University of Amapá, Macapa, AP, Brazil. jocivania@unifap.br elziliam@ibest.com.br adolfo_bittencourt@yahoo.com.br nayanaseabra@yahoo.com.br shayanne_henriques@hotmail.com leide-caroline@hotmail.com camilalobato2011@hotmail.com jocivania@unifap.br.

Abstract

Antivenom therapy has been ineffective in neutralizing the tissue damage caused by snakebites. Among therapeutic strategies to minimize effects after envenoming, it was hypothesized that a low level laser would reduce complications and reduce the severity of local snake venom effects. In the current study, the effect of a low-level semiconductor gallium arsenide (GaAs) laser on the local pathological alterations induced by B. moojeni snake venom was investigated. The experimental groups consisted of five male mice, each administered either B. moojeni venom (VB), B. moojeni venom + antivenom (VAV), B. moojeni venom + laser (VL), B. moojeni venom + antivenom + laser (VAVL), or sterile saline solution (SSS) alone. Paw oedema was induced by intradermal administration of 0.05 mg kg(-1) of B. moojeni venom and was expressed in mm of directly induced oedema. Mice received by subcutaneous route 0.20 mg kg(-1) of venom for evaluating nociceptive activity and the time (in seconds) spent in licking and biting the injected paw was taken as an indicator of pain response. Inflammatory infiltration was determined by counting the number of leukocytes present in the gastrocnemius muscle after venom injection (0.10 mg kg(-1)). For histological examination of myonecrosis, venom (0.10 mg kg(-1)) was administered intramuscularly. The site of venom injection was irradiated by the GaAs laser and some animals received antivenom intraperitoneally. The results indicated that GaAs laser irradiation can help in reducing some local effects produced by the B. moojeni venom in mice, stimulating phagocytosis, proliferation of myoblasts and the regeneration of muscle fibers.

Photomed Laser Surg.  2011 Apr;29(4):233-7. Epub 2010 Dec 23.

Effect of photobiomodulation on vinblastine-poisoned murine HERS cells.

Hodgson BD, Pyszka B, Henry MM, Buchmann E, Whelan HT.

Source

Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. brian.hodgson@marquette.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of near-infrared (NIR) photobiomodulation on the proliferation and glutathione levels in murine Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells after poisoning with vinblastine.

BACKGROUND:

Photobiomodulation has been shown to improve wound healing in a number of animal models. There have been no studies on the effect of photobiomodulation on cancer-related chemotherapy injury to the cells that initiate tooth root growth.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Control groups consisted of murine HERS cells without vinblastine (VB-) and cells with vinblastine at 10, 20, and 30?ng/mL (VB10, VB20, and VB30). Experimental groups consisted of these same groups with light therapy (VB-L, VB10L, VB20L, and VB30L). The cells were exposed to vinblastine for 1?h. Photobiomodulation consisted of a 75-cm(2) gallium-aluminum-arsenide light-emitting diode (LED) array at an energy density of 12.8?J/cm(2), delivered with 50?mW/cm(2) power over 256?s.

RESULTS:

Vinblastine alone significantly decreased HERS cell proliferation and glutathione levels at all concentrations (VB10 [-55%, p?

CONCLUSIONS:

Photobiomodulation demonstrated an improvement in proliferation and glutathione levels in vinblastine-poisoned murine HERS cells.

J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009 Jan;46(1):4-14. Epub 2008 Sep 30.

Near infrared light protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia and reoxygenation injury by a nitric oxide dependent mechanism.

Zhang R, Mio Y, Pratt PF, Lohr N, Warltier DC, Whelan HT, Zhu D, Jacobs ER, Medhora M, Bienengraeber M.

Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53326, USA.

Photobiomodulation with near infrared light (NIR) provides cellular protection in various disease models. Previously, infrared light emitted by a low-energy laser has been shown to significantly improve recovery from ischemic injury of the canine heart. The goal of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that NIR (670 nm) from light emitting diodes produces cellular protection against hypoxia and reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocyte injury. Additionally, nitric oxide (NO) was investigated as a potential cellular mediator of NIR. Our results demonstrate that exposure to NIR at the time of reoxygenation protects neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and HL-1 cells from injury, as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase release and MTT assay. Similarly, indices of apoptosis, including caspase 3 activity, annexin binding and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, were decreased after NIR treatment. NIR increased NO in cardiomyocytes, and the protective effect of NIR was completely reversed by the NO scavengers carboxy-PTIO and oxyhemoglobin, but only partially blocked by the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NMMA. Mitochondrial metabolism, measured by ATP synthase activity, was increased by NIR, and NO-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption with substrates for complex I or complex IV was reversed by exposure to NIR. Taken together these data provide evidence for protection against hypoxia and reoxygenation injury in cardiomyocytes by NIR in a manner that is dependent upon NO derived from NOS and non-NOS sources.

Brain Res. 2008 Dec 3;1243:167-73. Epub 2008 Sep 30.

Pretreatment with near-infrared light via light-emitting diode provides added benefit against rotenone- and MPP+-induced neurotoxicity.

Ying R, Liang HL, Whelan HT, Eells JT, Wong-Riley MT.

Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, leading to nigrostriatal degeneration. The inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I and oxidative stress-induced damage have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The present study used these specific mitochondrial complex I inhibitors (rotenone and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium or MPP(+)) on striatal and cortical neurons in culture. The goal was to test our hypothesis that pretreatment with near-infrared light (NIR) via light-emitting diode (LED) had a greater beneficial effect on primary neurons grown in media with rotenone or MPP(+) than those with or without LED treatment during exposure to poisons. Striatal and visual cortical neurons from newborn rats were cultured in a media with or without 200 nM of rotenone or 250 microM of MPP(+) for 48 h. They were treated with NIR-LED twice a day before, during, and both before and during the exposure to the poison. Results indicate that pretreatment with NIR-LED significantly suppressed rotenone- or MPP(+)-induced apoptosis in both striatal and cortical neurons (P<0.001), and that pretreatment plus LED treatment during neurotoxin exposure was significantly better than LED treatment alone during exposure to neurotoxins. In addition, MPP(+) induced a decrease in neuronal ATP levels (to 48% of control level) that was reversed significantly to 70% of control by NIR-LED pretreatment. These data suggest that LED pretreatment is an effective adjunct preventative therapy in rescuing neurons from neurotoxins linked to PD.

Neuroscience. 2008 Jun 2;153(4):963-74. Epub 2008 Mar 26.

Near-infrared light via light-emitting diode treatment is therapeutic against rotenone- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced neurotoxicity.

Liang HL, Whelan HT, Eells JT, Wong-Riley MT.

Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

Parkinson's disease is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Thus, therapeutic approaches that improve mitochondrial function may prove to be beneficial. Previously, we have documented that near-infrared light via light-emitting diode (LED) treatment was therapeutic to neurons functionally inactivated by tetrodotoxin, potassium cyanide (KCN), or methanol intoxication, and LED pretreatment rescued neurons from KCN-induced apoptotic cell death. The current study tested our hypothesis that LED treatment can protect neurons from both rotenone- and MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity. Primary cultures of postnatal rat striatal and cortical neurons served as models, and the optimal frequency of LED treatment per day was also determined. Results indicated that LED treatments twice a day significantly increased cellular adenosine triphosphate content, decreased the number of neurons undergoing cell death, and significantly reduced the expressions of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in rotenone- or MPP(+)-exposed neurons as compared with untreated ones. These results strongly suggest that LED treatment may be therapeutic to neurons damaged by neurotoxins linked to Parkinson's disease by energizing the cells and increasing their viability.

Neuroscience. 2006 May 12;139(2):639-49. Epub 2006 Feb 7.

Photobiomodulation partially rescues visual cortical neurons from cyanide-induced apoptosis.

Liang HL, Whelan HT, Eells JT, Meng H, Buchmann E, Lerch-Gaggl A, Wong-Riley M.

Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

Near-infrared light via light-emitting diode treatment has documented therapeutic effects on neurons functionally inactivated by tetrodotoxin or methanol intoxication. Light-emitting diode pretreatment also reduced potassium cyanide-induced cell death, but the mode of death via the apoptotic or necrotic pathway was unclear. The current study tested our hypothesis that light-emitting diode rescues neurons from apoptotic cell death. Primary neuronal cultures from postnatal rat visual cortex were pretreated with light-emitting diode for 10 min at a total energy density of 30 J/cm2 before exposing to potassium cyanide for 28 h. With 100 or 300 microM potassium cyanide, neurons died mainly via the apoptotic pathway, as confirmed by electron microscopy, Hoechst 33258, single-stranded DNA, Bax, and active caspase-3. In the presence of caspase inhibitor I, the percentage of apoptotic cells in 300microM potassium cyanide was significantly decreased. Light-emitting diode pretreatment reduced apoptosis from 36% to 17.9% (100 microM potassium cyanide) and from 58.9% to 39.6% (300 microM potassium cyanide), representing a 50.3% and 32.8% reduction, respectively. Light-emitting diode pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of caspase-3 elicited by potassium cyanide. It also reversed the potassium cyanide-induced increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 to control levels. Moreover, light-emitting diode decreased the intensity of 5-(and -6) chloromethy-2', 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester, a marker of reactive oxygen species, in neurons exposed to 300 microM potassium cyanide. These results indicate that light-emitting diode pretreatment partially protects neurons against cyanide-induced caspase-mediated apoptosis, most likely by decreasing reactive oxygen species production, down-regulating pro-apoptotic proteins and activating anti-apoptotic proteins, as well as increasing energy metabolism in neurons as reported previously.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2006 Apr;24(2):121-8.

Clinical and experimental applications of NIR-LED photobiomodulation.

Desmet KD, Paz DA, Corry JJ, Eells JT, Wong-Riley MT, Henry MM, Buchmann EV, Connelly MP, Dovi JV, Liang HL, Henshel DS, Yeager RL, Millsap DS, Lim J, Gould LJ, Das R, Jett M, Hodgson BD, Margolis D, Whelan HT.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 53226, USA.

This review presents current research on the use of far-red to near-infrared (NIR) light treatment in various in vitro and in vivo models. Low-intensity light therapy, commonly referred to as "photobiomodulation," uses light in the far-red to near-infrared region of the spectrum (630-1000 nm) and modulates numerous cellular functions. Positive effects of NIR-light-emitting diode (LED) light treatment include acceleration of wound healing, improved recovery from ischemic injury of the heart, and attenuated degeneration of injured optic nerves by improving mitochondrial energy metabolism and production. Various in vitro and in vivo models of mitochondrial dysfunction were treated with a variety of wavelengths of NIR-LED light. These studies were performed to determine the effect of NIR-LED light treatment on physiologic and pathologic processes. NIRLED light treatment stimulates the photoacceptor cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in increased energy metabolism and production. NIR-LED light treatment accelerates wound healing in ischemic rat and murine diabetic wound healing models, attenuates the retinotoxic effects of methanol-derived formic acid in rat models, and attenuates the developmental toxicity of dioxin in chicken embryos. Furthermore, NIR-LED light treatment prevents the development of oral mucositis in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients. The experimental results demonstrate that NIR-LED light treatment stimulates mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in vitro, and accelerates cell and tissue repair in vivo. NIR-LED light represents a novel, noninvasive, therapeutic intervention for the treatment of numerous diseases linked to mitochondrial dysfunction.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2006 Jun;24(3):410-3.

Brief report: embryonic growth and hatching implications of developmental 670-nm phototherapy and dioxin co-exposure.

Yeager RL, Franzosa JA, Millsap DS, Lim J, Hansen CM, Jasevicius AV, Heise SS, Wakhungu P, Whelan HT, Eells JT, Henshel DS.

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA. rlyeager@indiana.edu

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of 670-nm light therapy on growth and hatching kinetics in chickens (Gallus gallus) exposed to dioxin. BACKGROUND DATA: Photobiomodulation has been shown to stimulate signaling pathways resulting in improved energy metabolism, antioxidant production, and cell survival. In ovo treatment with 670-nm light-emitting diode (LED) arrays improves hatching success and increases hatchling size in control chickens. Under conditions where developmental dioxin exposure is above the lethality threshold (100 ppt), phototherapy attenuates dioxin-induced early embryonic death. We hypothesized that 670-nm LED therapy would attenuate dioxin-induced developmental anomalies and increase hatching success. METHODS: Fertile chicken eggs were injected with control oil, 2, 20, or 200 ppt dioxin, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) prior to the start of incubation. Half of the eggs in each dose group were treated once per day from embryonic days 0-20 with 670-nm LED light at a fluence of 4 J/cm2. Hatchling size, organ weights, and energy parameters were compared between dose groups and LED treatment. RESULTS: LED therapy resulted in earlier pip times (small hole created 12-24 h prior to hatch), and increased hatchling size and weight in the 200 ppt dose groups. However, there appears to be an LED-oil interaction within the oil-treated controls that results in longer hatch times and decreased liver weight within the LED control dose groups in comparison to the non-LED control dose groups. CONCLUSION: Size and hatching times suggest that the hatching success and preparedness of chicks developmentally exposed to dioxin concentrations above the lethality threshold is improved by 670-nm LED treatment administered throughout the gestation period, but the relationship may be complicated by an LED-oil interaction.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2006 Feb;24(1):29-32.

Survivorship and mortality implications of developmental 670-nm phototherapy: dioxin co-exposure.

Yeager RL, Franzosa JA, Millsap DS, Lim J, Heise SS, Wakhungu P, Whelan HT, Eells JT, Henshel DS.

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University-Bloomington, 341 SPEA Building, 1315 East Tenth Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. rlyeager@indiana.edu

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of 670-nm light therapy on dioxin-induced embryonic mortality in chickens (Gallus gallus). BACKGROUND DATA: Developmental photobiomodulation using 670-nm light-emitting diode (LED) arrays improves hatching success and increases body size in hatchling chickens. Photobiomodulation also stimulates signaling pathways resulting in improved energy metabolism, antioxidant production and cell survival. Dioxin causes embryonic mortality, including increases in the frequency of chicken embryos that pip but can't go to hatch. We hypothesized that 670-nm LED therapy would attenuate dioxin-induced embryo mortality. METHODS: Fertile chicken eggs were injected with control or 2, 20, or 200 ppt 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin) prior to the start of incubation. Half of the eggs in each dose group were treated once per day from embryonic days 0-20 with 670-nm LED light at a fluence of 4 J/cm(2). In ovo survival and hatching success were compared between dose groups and LED treatment. RESULTS: LED therapy decreased the embryonic mortality rate by 41%, resulting in increased embryonic survival and improved hatching success in eggs exposed to 200 ppt dioxin. However, at sub-lethal dioxin concentrations and in oil-treated controls, LED therapy slightly increased mortality. CONCLUSION: Overall survivorship and hatching success of chicks developmentally exposed to dioxin concentrations above the lethality threshold (>100 ppt TCDD) is improved by 670-nm LED treatment administered throughout the gestation period, but the relationship may be complicated by an LED-oil interaction.

J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 11;280(6):4761-71. Epub 2004 Nov 22.

Photobiomodulation directly benefits primary neurons functionally inactivated by toxins: role of cytochrome c oxidase.

Wong-Riley MT, Liang HL, Eells JT, Chance B, Henry MM, Buchmann E, Kane M, Whelan HT.

Department of Cell Biology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA. mwr@mcw.edu

Far red and near infrared (NIR) light promotes wound healing, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Our previous studies using 670 nm light-emitting diode (LED) arrays suggest that cytochrome c oxidase, a photoacceptor in the NIR range, plays an important role in therapeutic photobiomodulation. If this is true, then an irreversible inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase, potassium cyanide (KCN), should compete with LED and reduce its beneficial effects. This hypothesis was tested on primary cultured neurons. LED treatment partially restored enzyme activity blocked by 10-100 microm KCN. It significantly reduced neuronal cell death induced by 300 microm KCN from 83.6 to 43.5%. However, at 1-100 mm KCN, the protective effects of LED decreased, and neuronal deaths increased. LED significantly restored neuronal ATP content only at 10 microm KCN but not at higher concentrations of KCN tested. Pretreatment with LED enhanced efficacy of LED during exposure to 10 or 100 microm KCN but did not restore enzyme activity to control levels. In contrast, LED was able to completely reverse the detrimental effect of tetrodotoxin, which only indirectly down-regulated enzyme levels. Among the wavelengths tested (670, 728, 770, 830, and 880 nm), the most effective ones (830 nm, 670 nm) paralleled the NIR absorption spectrum of oxidized cytochrome c oxidase, whereas the least effective wavelength, 728 nm, did not. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that the mechanism of photobiomodulation involves the up-regulation of cytochrome c oxidase, leading to increased energy metabolism in neurons functionally inactivated by toxins.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Mar 18;100(6):3439-44. Epub 2003 Mar 7.

Therapeutic photobiomodulation for methanol-induced retinal toxicity.

Eells JT, Henry MM, Summerfelt P, Wong-Riley MT, Buchmann EV, Kane M, Whelan NT, Whelan HT.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA. jeells@mcw.edu

Methanol intoxication produces toxic injury to the retina and optic nerve, resulting in blindness. The toxic metabolite in methanol intoxication is formic acid, a mitochondrial toxin known to inhibit the essential mitochondrial enzyme, cytochrome oxidase. Photobiomodulation by red to near-IR radiation has been demonstrated to enhance mitochondrial activity and promote cell survival in vitro by stimulation of cytochrome oxidase activity. The present studies were undertaken to test the hypothesis that exposure to monochromatic red radiation from light-emitting diode (LED) arrays would protect the retina against the toxic actions of methanol-derived formic acid in a rodent model of methanol toxicity. Using the electroretinogram as a sensitive indicator of retinal function, we demonstrated that three brief (2 min, 24 s) 670-nm LED treatments (4 J/cm(2)), delivered at 5, 25, and 50 h of methanol intoxication, attenuated the retinotoxic effects of methanol-derived formate. Our studies document a significant recovery of rod- and cone-mediated function in LED-treated, methanol-intoxicated rats. We further show that LED treatment protected the retina from the histopathologic changes induced by methanol-derived formate. These findings provide a link between the actions of monochromatic red to near-IR light on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in vitro and retinoprotection in vivo. They also suggest that photobiomodulation may enhance recovery from retinal injury and other ocular diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction is postulated to play a role.