Mast Cell Effects

Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:630361. doi: 10.1155/2015/630361. Epub 2015 Jan 27.

Modulation of Extracellular ATP Content of Mast Cells and DRG Neurons by Irradiation: Studies on Underlying Mechanism of Low-Level-Laser Therapy.

Wang L1, Hu L1, Grygorczyk R2, Shen X1, Schwarz W3.

Author information

  • 1Acupuncture and Moxibustion College, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cailun Road, Shanghai 201203, China ; Shanghai Research Center for Acupuncture and Meridians, 199 Guoshoujing Road, Shanghai 201203, China.
  • 2Research Centre, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Tour Viger, 900 rue Saint-Denis, Montréal, QC, Canada H2X 0A9 ; Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, CP 6128 Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3T5.
  • 3Shanghai Research Center for Acupuncture and Meridians, 199 Guoshoujing Road, Shanghai 201203, China ; Institute for Biophysics, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Max von Laue Straße 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Abstract

Low-level-laser therapy (LLLT) is an effective complementary treatment, especially for anti-inflammation and wound healing in which dermis or mucus mast cells (MCs) are involved. In periphery, MCs crosstalk with neurons via purinergic signals and participate in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Whether extracellular ATP, an important purine in purinergic signaling, of MCs and neurons could be modulated by irradiation remains unknown. In this study, effects of red-laser irradiation on extracellular ATP content of MCs and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons were investigated and underlying mechanisms were explored in vitro. Our results show that irradiation led to elevation of extracellular ATP level in the human mast cell line HMC-1 in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied by elevation of intracellular ATP content, an indicator for ATP synthesis, together with [Ca(2+)]i elevation, a trigger signal for exocytotic ATP release. In contrast to MCs, irradiation attenuated the extracellular ATP content of neurons, which could be abolished by ARL 67156, a nonspecific ecto-ATPases inhibitor. Our results suggest that irradiation potentiates extracellular ATP of MCs by promoting ATP synthesis and release and attenuates extracellular ATP of neurons by upregulating ecto-ATPase activity. The opposite responses of these two cell types indicate complex mechanisms underlying LLLT.

 
Cells. 2014 Jun 26;3(3):662-673.

TRPV Channels in Mast Cells as a Target for Low-Level-Laser Therapy.

Wang L1, Zhang D2, Schwarz W3.

Author information

  • 1Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Shanghai Research Center for Acupuncture and Meridians, Shanghai 201203, China. linawang1103@163.com.
  • 2Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University Shanghai, Shanghai 201203, China. dizhang@fudan.edu.cn.
  • 3Institute for Biophysics, Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany. schwarz@biophysik.org.

Abstract

Low-level laser irradiation in the visible as well as infrared range is applied to skin for treatment of various diseases. Here we summarize and discuss effects of laser irradiation on mast cells that leads to degranulation of the cells. This process may contribute to initial steps in the final medical effects. We suggest that activation of TRPV channels in the mast cells forms a basis for the underlying mechanisms and that released ATP and histamine may be putative mediators for therapeutic effects.

Bull Exp Biol Med.  2011 Jul;151(3):321-3.

Adaptive responses of individual tissue structures of rat gingival mucosa to exposure to low-intensity 890-nm laser irradiation.

[Article in English, Russian]
Giniatullina ER, Golovneva ES, Giniatullin RU, Kravchenko TG.

Source

Center of Specialized Medical Aid, Chelyabinsk State Institute of Laser Surgery, Chelyabinsk, Russia. main@cgilh.chel.su

 

Abstract

Adaptive reactions develop in rat gingival mucosa 1 min after single exposure to low-intensity 890-nm laser: the number of mast cells, degree and index of their degranulation, the diameter of blood vessels and their total area considerably increased. These parameters returned to normal after 1 day, while on days 3-7 they were below the control.

Lasers Med Sci. 2011 Nov;26(6):741-7. Epub 2010 Jun 12.

Quantification of fibrosis and mast cells in the tissue response of endodontic sealer irradiated by low-level laser therapy.

Berbert FL, Sivieri-Araújo G, Ramalho LT, Pereira SA, Rodrigues DB, de Araújo MS.

Source

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Discipline of Endodontics, Dental School of Araraquara, São Paulo State University-UNESP, Rua Humaitá, 1680, PO 331, CEP 14.801-903, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) accelerates tissue repair. Mast cells induce the proliferation of fibroblasts and the development of local fibrosis. The objective of this study was to quantify fibrosis rate and mast cells in connective tissue after endodontic sealer zinc oxide and eugenol (ZOE) was implanted and submitted to LLLT, immediately after implant and again 24 h later. Sixty mice were distributed into three groups: GI, GII, and GIII (n = 20). In GI, the tubes filled with Endofill were implanted in the animals and were not irradiated with LLLT. In GII, the tubes containing Endofill were implanted in the animals and then irradiated with red LLLT (InGaAIP) 685-nm wavelength, D?=?72 J/Cm(2), E = 2 J, T?=?58 s, P?=?35 mW, and in GIII, the tubes with Endofill were implanted and irradiated with infrared LLLT (AsGaAl) 830-nm wavelength, D?=?70 J/Cm(2), E = 2 J, T?=?40 s, P?=?50 mW. After 7 days and 30 days, the animals were killed. A series of 6-µm-thick sections were obtained and stained with Toluidine Blue and Picrosirius and analyzed under a standard light microscope using a polarized light filter for the quantification of fibrosis. The statistics were qualitative and quantitative with a significance of 5%. The irradiation with LLLT did not offer improvement in the fibrosis rate, however, it provided a significant decrease in the concentration of independent mast cells for the period studied.

Photomed Laser Surg.  2011 Jul 26. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of LED Red and IR Photobiomodulation in Tongue Mast Cells in Wistar Rats:Histological Study.

de Carvalho Monteiro JS, de Oliveira SC, de Fátima Ferreira Lima M, Sousa JA, Pinheiro AL, Dos Santos JN.

Source

1 Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia , Salvador, Bahia, Brazil .

Abstract

Abstract Objective: This article aimed to study the effect of LED Phototherapy (LED-PHT) (?630?nm or ?850?nm) on mast cells on the dorsum of the tongue of rodents.

Background Data: Vasodilatation is one of the reported effects of laser light on tissues. Laser light is able to induce the release of mediators responsible for vasodilatation, such as those produced by mast cells. Mast cells are also related to some diseases such as hay fever.

Methods: Sixty Wistar rats were divided into three groups: I, Control; II, IR-LED (?850?nm, 21.9?J/cm(2), 73 sec; and III, red-LED (?630?nm, 21.9?J/cm(2), 73?sec). The specimens were taken after, 20, 45, and 60?min following irradiation. The specimens were routinely processed; stained with toluidine blue; and then total, degranulated, and non-degranulated mast cells were counted and statistical analysis performed.

Results: Both LED irradiated subjects showed significant difference when compared to the control subjects on the total number mast cells (p<0.001, ANOVA), degranulated mast cells (p<0.001, ANOVA), and non-degranulated mast cells (p<0.001, ANOVA). Comparing the two groups of LED irradiated subjects, significant difference was observed regarding the total number of cells (p<0.001, paired t-test) and degranulated mast cells (p<0.001, paired t-test) with a greater number of these cells noted in the IR-LED group. On the other hand, Red-LED irradiated subjects showed a significantly greater number of non-degranulated mast cells (p=0.001, paired t-test).

Conclusions: Our results lead us to conclude that both red and IR-LED light caused increased mast cell degranulation and that IR-LED light resulted in a greater number of mast cells.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2011 Apr 1. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of Low-Level Treatment with an 80-Hz Pulsed Infrared Diode Laser on Mast-Cell Numbers and Degranulation in a Rat Model of Third-Degree Burn.

Khoshvaghti A, Zibamanzarmofrad M, Bayat M.

1 Anatomy Department, Medical Faculty, Artesh University of Medical Sciences (AUMS) , Tehran, Iran .

Abstract

Abstract Background Data: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been reported to be capable of changing mast cell numbers and degranulation in experimental burns in rats.

Objective: We conducted a study of the influence of LLLT on mast cells in a rat model of third-degree burn.

Methods: In this study we divided 48 rats equally into two groups of 24 rats each. Third-degree burns were inflicted at three different locations on each rat in each group. The first burn site on rats in group I was treated with 890-nm pulsed laser, 75W peak, 80?Hz, 180?ns, average power 1mW, illuminated area 1?cm(2), 1?mW/cm(2), 856?sec, 0.924?J/cm(2). The second burn site on both groups of rats was treated with 0.2% nitrofurazone cream. Mast cell numbers and degranulation at each burn site on each group of rats were then assessed at 4, 8, 13, and 20 days after the infliction of burns.

Results: Analysis of variance on day 4 showed that the total numbers of mast cells were significantly lower at the laser-treated burn sites than at other burn sites on both groups of rats. On day 8 the total numbers of mast cells were again significantly lower at the laser-treated burn sites than at other burn sites, and on day 13, the numbers of both types 1 and 2 mast cells were significantly lower at the laser-treated burn sites than at other burn sites.

Conclusions: We conclude that LLLT can significantly decrease total numbers of mast cells during the proliferation and remodeling phases of healing in a rat model of third-degree burn.

Lasers Med Sci. 2010 Jun 12. [Epub ahead of print]

Quantification of fibrosis and mast cells in the tissue response of endodontic sealer irradiated by low-level laser therapy.

 Berbert FL, Sivieri-Araújo G, Ramalho LT, Pereira SA, Rodrigues DB, de Araújo MS.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Discipline of Endodontics, Dental School of Araraquara, São Paulo State University-UNESP, Rua Humaitá, 1680, PO 331, CEP 14.801-903, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) accelerates tissue repair. Mast cells induce the proliferation of fibroblasts and the development of local fibrosis. The objective of this study was to quantify fibrosis rate and mast cells in connective tissue after endodontic sealer zinc oxide and eugenol (ZOE) was implanted and submitted to LLLT, immediately after implant and again 24 h later. Sixty mice were distributed into three groups: GI, GII, and GIII (n = 20). In GI, the tubes filled with Endofill were implanted in the animals and were not irradiated with LLLT. In GII, the tubes containing Endofill were implanted in the animals and then irradiated with red LLLT (InGaAIP) 685-nm wavelength, D = 72 J/Cm(2), E = 2 J, T = 58 s, P = 35 mW, and in GIII, the tubes with Endofill were implanted and irradiated with infrared LLLT (AsGaAl) 830-nm wavelength, D = 70 J/Cm(2), E = 2 J, T = 40 s, P = 50 mW. After 7 days and 30 days, the animals were killed. A series of 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with Toluidine Blue and Picrosirius and analyzed under a standard light microscope using a polarized light filter for the quantification of fibrosis. The statistics were qualitative and quantitative with a significance of 5%. The irradiation with LLLT did not offer improvement in the fibrosis rate, however, it provided a significant decrease in the concentration of independent mast cells for the period studied.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2009 Dec;27(6):959-64.

Low-level laser therapy using 80-Hz pulsed infrared diode laser accelerates third-degree burn healing in rat.

Vasheghani MM, Bayat M, Dadpay M, Habibie M, Rezaei F.

Basic Sciences Department, Paramedical Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University, M.C., and Pathology Department, 501 Army Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 80-Hz pulsed infrared diode low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for third-degree burn healing in rats.

BACKGROUND DATA: Review of the literature indicates that LLLT has a biostimulatory effect on wound healing, although no clear recommendation can be made yet.

METHODS: Forty-eight male rats were divided into groups 1 and 2. On day 0, three third-degree burns were made on the dorsum of each rat using steam. In group 1, the first burn was exposed to an 80-Hz pulsed 890-nm infrared diode laser at 0.396 J/cm2 three times a week. In group 2, the first burn was exposed to the inactivated laser. In both groups, the second burns were treated with topical application of nitrofurazone 0.2%, and third burns did not receive any treatment and were considered as control burns. Burns were clinically examined. The rats were treated for 8, 12, and 20 days in both groups. On days 8, 2, and 20, microbiological samples of burns were collected and analyzed. Data were analyzed using the chi-square method.

RESULTS: The paired Student t-test showed that the wound closure rate of laser-treated burns (17.6+/-1.86 days) was significantly longer than that of the control burns (19.6+/-0.81 days) (p=0.007).The number of laser-treated burns that closed was significantly higher than controls. Chi-square tests showed that there was not significant difference between each microorganism (Staphylococcus epidermis, S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).

CONCLUSION: LLLT using an 80-Hz pulsed infrared diode laser accelerated third-degree burn healing in rat.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2009 Apr;27(2):337-43.

Effect of low-level laser therapy on mast cells in viability of the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap.

 Pinfildi CE, Liebano RE, Hochman BS, Enokihara MM, Lippert R, Gobbato RC, Ferreira LM.

Department of Plastic Surgery and IMES-FAFICA, São Paulo Federal University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. cepinfildi@hotmail.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on viability of mast cells of the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap.

BACKGROUND DATA: LLLT has been recently used on the TRAM flap to stimulate mast cells.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-four Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups of 12 rats in each: group 1 (sham laser therapy); group 2 received 3 J/cm(2) at one point; group 3 received 3 J/cm(2) at 24 points; group 4 received 72 J/cm(2) at 1 point; group 5 received 6 J/cm(2) at 1 point; group 6 received 6 J/cm(2) at 24 points; and group 7 received 144 J/cm(2) at 1 point. All experimental groups underwent LLLT immediately after TRAM surgery and on the next two following days, for three sessions in total. The percentage of the area of skin flap necrosis was calculated on the fourth postoperative day and two samples of skin were collected from each rat with a 1-cm(2) punch to perform mast cell evaluations with toluidine blue dye.

RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in the percentage of necrosis, and higher values were seen in group 1 than in all other groups. Among groups 3-7 no statistically significant differences were found (p < 0.292). For mast cells, when group 1 was compared to groups 5 (6 J/cm(2) at 1 point) and 7 (144 J/cm(2) at 1 point), it had fewer mast cells.

CONCLUSION: LLLT at a wavelength of 670 nm was effective at reducing the necrotic area, and we found that it can stimulate mast cells growth to increase vascular perfusion.

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2009 Jun;29(6):478-83.

Relationship between laser acupuncture analgesia and the function of mast cells.

 [Article in Chinese]

Cheng K, Shen XY, Ding GH, Wu F.

Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai 201203, China. cheng_ker@hotmail.com

OBJECTIVE: To observe the analgesic effects of single-and combined-laser irradiation with low-intensity applied at "Zusanli" (ST 36) in rats, and their relation to degranulation of mast cells.

METHODS: Sixty-six SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control group (Group NC), model control group (Group MC), sham irradiation group (Group SI), 10.6 microm laser irradiation group (Group 10.6 microm LI), 650 nm laser irradiation group (Group 650 nm LI) and combined (10.6 microm + 650 nm) laser irradiation group (Group CLI). Complete Freund's Adjuvant (0.05 mL) was injected into the left ankle joints of all the rats except those in Group NC to cause acute adjuvant-induced arthritis. In treatment, laser irradiation was applied at "Zusanli" (ST 36) for 30 minutes in all the rats except those in Group NC and Group MC. The paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to radian heat was used to compare analgesic effects among the groups. By means of toluidine blue, dyed slices of local tissues of "Zusanli" (ST 36) were used to observe changes of mast cell degranulation before and after laser irradiation.

RESULTS: The pain thresholds to irradiation of the rats in Group 650 nm LI and Group CLI were significantly higher than those in Group MC and Group SI (P < 0.01), and the mast cell degranulation rate in Group 650 nm LI and Group CLI were also significantly higher than that in Group MC and Group SI (P < 0.001). The pain threshold and mast cell degranulation rate in Group 10. 6 microm LI were not significantly different from those in Group MC and Group SI. There was a linear correlation between mast cell degranulation rate and PWL with 0. 737 in coefficient (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Single 650 nm laser and combined 650 nm + 10.6 microm laser with low intensity irradiated at "Zusanli" (ST 36) in acute adjuvant rats can provide remarkable analgesic effects, and there was a positive correlation between mast cell degranulation rate and analgesic effects, which plays an important part in laser irradiation-induced analgesia.

J Rehabil Res Dev. 2008;45(6):931-8.

Effects of low-level laser therapy on mast cell number and degranulation in third-degree burns of rats.

 Bayat M, Vasheghani MM, Razavie N, Jalili MR.

Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Medical Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. bayat_m@yahoo.com

Mast cells have been shown to participate in the wound healing process. We investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on mast cell number in the inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling phases of the wound healing process of experimental burns. Sixty rats subjected to third-degree burns were divided into four groups: two laser-treated, one control, and one nitrofurazone-treated group. In the two laser-treated groups, burned areas received LLLT with a helium-neon laser at energy densities of 38.2 J/cm(2) and 76.4 J/cm(2), respectively. The effects on mast cell number and degranulation were assessed 7, 16, and 30 days postburn (inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling phases of wound healing, respectively). Intact and degranulated mast cells were counted. Five rats with no burns were used for baseline studies. On day 7 in the first laser group, the total number of mast cells was significantly higher than in the other groups. On day 16 in the nitrofurazone-treated group, the total number of mast cells was significantly higher than in the control, first laser, and normal groups. LLLT on the experimental third-degree burns significantly increased the total number of mast cells during the inflammation phase of wound healing; also, topical application of 0.2% nitrofurazone ointment on the same burns significantly increased the total number of mast cells during the proliferation phase of burn healing.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2008 Feb;26(1):1-5.

Effect of low-level laser therapy on mast cells in second-degree burns in rats.

 Vasheghani MM, Bayat M, Rezaei F, Bayat A, Karimipour M.

Paramedical Faculty, Shaheed Beheshti University, M.C., Tehran, Iran.

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser would affect mast cell number and degranulation in second-degree burns in rats. Background Data: LLLT has been recently applied to stimulate the wound healing process.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five rats were randomly allocated to one of five groups. A deep second-degree burn was inflicted on all rats except those in the control group. In the sham-exposed group burns remained untreated. In the two laser-treated groups, the burns were irradiated every day by LLLT, with energy densities of 1.2 and 2.4 J/cm(2). In the fifth group the burns were treated topically with 0.2% nitrofurazone cream every day. The unburned skin of the rats in the control group were used for baseline study. The effects on mast cell number and degranulation were assessed by counting the number of intact and degranulated mast cells in sections fixed in formalin and stained with toluidine blue.

RESULTS: On the seventh and 16th days post-burn, the type 1 mast cell count in the 2.4-J/cm(2) laser-treated group was significantly higher than that of the control group. On the 30th day, the total numbers of mast cells in the laser-treated groups were lower than those in the control and sham-exposed groups.

CONCLUSION: LLLT of deep second-degree cutaneous burns in rats significantly increased the number of intact mast cells during the inflammatory and proliferative phases of healing, and decreased the total number of mast cells during the remodeling phase.