Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Jul 3. [Epub ahead of print]
Low level laser therapy before eccentric exercise reduces muscle damage markers in humans.
Baroni BM, Leal Junior EC, De Marchi T, Lopes AL, Salvador M, Vaz MA.
Exercise Research Laboratory (LAPEX), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Rua Felizardo, 750-Bairro Jardim Botânico, Porto Alegre, RS, 90690-200, Brazil, email@example.com.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) treatment before knee extensor eccentric exercise on indirect markers of muscle damage. Thirty-six healthy men were randomized in LLLT group (n = 18) and placebo group (n = 18). After LLLT or placebo treatment, subjects performed 75 maximal knee extensors eccentric contractions (five sets of 15 repetitions; velocity = 60 degrees seg(-1); range of motion = 60 degrees ). Muscle soreness (visual analogue scale-VAS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) levels were measured prior to exercise, and 24 and 48 h after exercise. Muscle function (maximal voluntary contraction-MVC) was measured before exercise, immediately after, and 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Groups had no difference on kineanthropometric characteristics and on eccentric exercise performance. They also presented similar baseline values of VAS (0.00 mm for LLLT and placebo groups), LDH (LLLT = 186 IU/l; placebo = 183 IU/l), CK (LLLT = 145 IU/l; placebo = 155 IU/l) and MVC (LLLT = 293 Nm; placebo = 284 Nm). VAS data did not show group by time interaction (P = 0.066). In the other outcomes, LLLT group presented (1) smaller increase on LDH values 48 h post-exercise (LLLT = 366 IU/l; placebo = 484 IU/l; P = 0.017); (2) smaller increase on CK values 24 h (LLLT = 272 IU/l; placebo = 498 IU/l; P = 0.020) and 48 h (LLLT = 436 IU/l; placebo = 1328 IU/l; P < 0.001) post-exercise; (3) smaller decrease on MVC immediately after exercise (LLLT = 189 Nm; placebo = 154 Nm; P = 0.011), and 24 h (LLLT = 249 Nm; placebo = 205 Nm; P = 0.004) and 48 h (LLLT = 267 Nm; placebo = 216 Nm; P = 0.001) post-exercise compared with the placebo group. In conclusion, LLLT treatment before eccentric exercise was effective in terms of attenuating the increase of muscle proteins in the blood serum and the decrease in muscle force.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010 Apr 12. [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in the Development of Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Fatigue and Chan
Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in the Development of Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Fatigue and Changes in Biochemical Markers Related to Post-Exercise Recovery.
Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Frigo L, De Marchi T, Rossi RP, de Godoi V, Tomazoni SS, da Silva DP, Basso M, Filho PL, de Valls Corsetti F, Iversen VV, Bjordal JM.
STUDY DESIGN: Randomized crossover double-blinded placebo-controlled trial.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if low level laser therapy (LLLT) can affect biceps muscle performance, fatigue development, and biochemical markers of post-exercise recovery. BACKGROUND: Cell and animal studies have suggested that LLLT can reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in muscle tissue. But it remains uncertain whether these findings can translate into humans in sport and exercise situations. METHODS: Nine healthy male volleyball players participated in the study. They received either active LLLT (cluster probe with 5 laser diodes, l=810 nm, 200 mW power output, 30 seconds of irradiation, applied in 2 locations over the biceps of the non-dominant arm, 60 J of total energy) or placebo LLLT using an identical cluster probe. The intervention or placebo were applied 3 minutes before the performance of exercise. All subjects performed voluntary elbow flexion repetitions with a workload of 75% of their maximal voluntary contraction force (MVC) until exhaustion. RESULTS: Active LLLT increased the number of repetitions by 14.5% (mean of 39.56, SD +/- 4.33 versus 34.56 +/- 5.64, p=0.037) and the elapsed time before exhaustion by 8.0% (p=0.034), when compared to the placebo treatment. The biochemical markers also indicated that recovery may be positively affected by LLLT as indicated by post-exercise blood lactate levels (p<0.01), Creatine Kinase (CK) activity (p=0.017), and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) levels (p=0.047) showing a faster recovery with LLLT application prior to the exercise. CONCLUSION: We conclude that pre-exercise irradiation of the biceps with an LLLT dose of 6 J per application location, applied in 2 locations, increased endurance for repeated elbow flexion against resistance, and decreased post-exercise levels of blood lactate, CK, and CRP. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapy, Level 1a. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 12 April 2010. doi:10.2519/jospt.2010.3294.
Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Apr;108(6):1083-8. Epub 2009 Dec 19.
Effect of low-level laser therapy (GaAs 904 nm) in skeletal muscle fatigue and biochemical markers of muscle damage in rats.
Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, de Almeida P, Ramos L, Iversen VV, Bjordal JM. Section for Physiotherapy Science, Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen (UiB), Kalfarveien 31, 5020 Bergen, Norway. firstname.lastname@example.org
We wanted to test if pre-exercise muscle irradiation with 904 nm laser affects the development of fatigue, blood lactate levels and creatine kinase (CK) activity in a rat model with tetanic contractions. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups receiving either one of four different laser doses (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 J) or a no-treatment control group. Laser irradiation was performed immediately before the first contraction for treated groups. Electrical stimulation was used to induce six tetanic tibial anterior muscle contractions with 10 min intervals between them. Contractions were stopped when the muscle force fell to 50% of the peak value for each contraction; blood samples were taken before the first and immediately after the sixth contraction. The relative peak forces for the sixth contraction were significantly better (P < 0.05) in the two laser groups irradiated with highest doses [151.27% (SD +/- 18.82) for 1.0 J, 144.84% (SD +/- 34.47) for 3.0 J and 82.25% (SD +/- 11.69) for the control group]. Similar significant (P < 0.05) increases in mean performed work during the sixth contraction for the 1.0 and 3.0 J groups were also observed. Blood lactate levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the control group in all irradiated groups. All irradiated groups except the 3.0 J group had significantly lower post-exercise CK activity than the control group. We conclude that pre-exercise irradiation with a laser dose of 1.0 J and 904 nm wavelength significantly delays muscle fatigue and decreases post-exercise blood lactate and CK in this rat model.
Lasers Med Sci. 2010 Jan;25(1):115-20. Epub 2009 Jun 25.
Low-level laser therapy attenuates creatinine kinase levels and apoptosis during forced swimming in rats.
Sussai DA, Carvalho Pde T, Dourado DM, Belchior AC, dos Reis FA, Pereira DM.
Postgraduate Program in Health Science and Development in the Central Western Region, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Carandá Bosque, 79032-423 Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.
Studies suggest that high-intensity physical exercise can cause damage to skeletal muscles, resulting in muscle soreness, fatigue, inflammatory processes and cell apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on a decrease in creatine kinase (CK) levels and cell apoptosis. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two equal groups: group 1 (control), resistance swimming; group 2 (LLLT), resistance swimming with LLLT. They were subjected to a single application of indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) laser immediately following the exercise for 40 s at an output power of 100 mW, wavelength 660 nm and 133.3 J/cm(2). The groups were subdivided according to sample collection time: 24 h and 48 h. CK was measured before and both 24 h and 48 h after the test. Samples of the gastrocnemius muscle were processed to determine the presence of apoptosis using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling. (There was a significant difference in CK levels between groups (P < 0.0001) as well as between the 24 h and 48 h levels in the control group, whereas there was no significant intra-group difference in the LLLT group at the same evaluation times. In the LLLT group there were 66.3 +/- 13.2 apoptotic cells after 24 h and 39.0 +/- 6.8 apoptotic cells after 48 h. The results suggest that LLLT influences the metabolic profile of animals subjected to fatigue by lowering serum levels of CK. This demonstrates that LLLT can act as a preventive tool against cell apoptosis experienced during high-intensity physical exercise.
Photomed Laser Surg. 2009 Dec;27(6):863-9.
Effects of low-level laser irradiation on rat skeletal muscle injury after eccentric exercise.
Liu XG, Zhou YJ, Liu TC, Yuan JQ.
Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The effect of photobiomodulation on delayed onset muscle soreness remains unknown. This study represents the first investigation of this treatment using an animal model. METHODS: Seventy-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: sedentary control group, exercise control group and three exercise-plus-laser groups. Downhill running was used to induce muscle injury in the gastrocnemius muscle. He-Ne laser irradiations were administered to the injured muscles immediately and at 18 and 42 h after exercise in the three exercise-plus-laser groups at 12, 28, and 43 J/cm2, respectively. Histological examination and serum creatine kinase (CK), muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) analyses were done at 24 and 48 h after exercise. RESULTS: The exercise control group exhibited a marked inflammation in the gastrocnemius muscle and significant elevations in serum CK activity and muscle MDA level after downhill running. He-Ne laser irradiation at 43 J/cm2 inhibited muscle inflammation, significantly enhanced muscle SOD activity and significantly reduced serum CK activity and muscle MDA level at both 24 and 48 h after exercise, whereas the irradiation at 12 or 28 J/cm2 slightly inhibited muscle inflammation and significantly reduced serum CK activity at 48 h after exercise only (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Low-level He-Ne laser therapy could exert therapeutic effects on eccentric exercise-induced rat muscle injury through enhancing muscle anti-oxidative capacity and reducing the inflammatory reaction. The photobiomodulation was dose-dependent, and the 43 J/cm2 dose was the most efficient among the doses used.
Exp Physiol. 2009 Jun 12. [Epub ahead of print]
Low-level laser irradiation promotes the recovery of atrophied gastrocnemius skeletal muscle in rat.
Nakano J, Kataoka H, Sakamoto J, Origuchi T, Okita M, Yoshimura T.
1 Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences;
Low-level laser (LLL) irradiation promotes proliferation of muscle satellite cells, angiogenesis and expression of growth factors. Satellite cells, angiogenesis and growth factors play important roles in the regeneration of muscle. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of LLL irradiation on rat gastrocnemius muscle recovering from disuse muscle atrophy. Eight-week-old rats were subjected to hindlimb suspension for 2 weeks, after which they were released and recovered. During the recovery period, rats underwent daily LLL irradiation (Ga-Al-As; 830 nm; 60 mW; total, 180 sec) to the right gastrocnemius muscle through the skin. The untreated left gastrocnemius muscle served as the control. In conjunction with LLL irradiation, 5-bromo-2.deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected subcutaneously for labeling of nuclei of proliferating cells. After 2 weeks, myofiber diameters of irradiated muscle increased in comparison with those of untreated muscle, but did’t recover back to normal levels. Additionally, in the superficial region of muscle, the number of capillaries and fibroblast growth factor levels in irradiated muscle exhibited meaningful elevation relative to those of untreated muscle. In the deep region of muscle, BrdU-positive nuclei of satellite cells and / or myofibers of irradiated muscle increased significantly relative to that of the untreated muscle. The results of this study suggested that LLL irradiation can promote recovery from disuse muscle atrophy in association with proliferation of satellite cells and angiogenesis.
Photomed Laser Surg. 2008 Oct;26(5):419-24
Effect of 655-nm low-level laser therapy on exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue in humans.
Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Dalan F, Ferrari M, Sbabo FM, Generosi RA, Baroni BM, Penna SC, Iversen VV, Bjordal JM.
Laboratory of Human Movement, University of Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if development of skeletal muscle fatigue during repeated voluntary biceps contractions could be attenuated by low-level laser therapy (LLLT). BACKGROUND DATA: Previous animal studies have indicated that LLLT can reduce oxidative stress and delay the onset of skeletal muscle fatigue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve male professional volleyball players were entered into a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, for two sessions (on day 1 and day 8) at a 1-wk interval, with both groups performing as many voluntary biceps contractions as possible, with a load of 75% of the maximal voluntary contraction force (MVC). At the second session on day 8, the groups were either given LLLT (655 nm) of 5 J at an energy density of 500 J/cm2 administered at each of four points along the middle of the biceps muscle belly, or placebo LLLT in the same manner immediately before the exercise session. The number of muscle contractions with 75% of MVC was counted by a blinded observer and blood lactate concentration was measured. RESULTS: Compared to the first session (on day 1), the mean number of repetitions increased significantly by 8.5 repetitions (+/- 1.9) in the active LLLT group at the second session (on day 8), while in the placebo LLLT group the increase was only 2.7 repetitions (+/- 2.9) (p = 0.0001). At the second session, blood lactate levels increased from a pre-exercise mean of 2.4 mmol/L (+/- 0.5 mmol/L), to 3.6 mmol/L (+/- 0.5 mmol/L) in the placebo group, and to 3.8 mmol/L (+/- 0.4 mmol/L) in the active LLLT group after exercise, but this difference between groups was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: We conclude that LLLT appears to delay the onset of muscle fatigue and exhaustion by a local mechanism in spite of increased blood lactate levels.
Lasers Med Sci. 2008 Dec 5. [Epub ahead of print]
Effect of 830 nm low-level laser therapy applied before high-intensity exercises on skeletal muscle recovery in atheletes.
Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Baroni BM, De Marchi T, Taufer D, Manfro DS, Rech M, Danna V, Grosselli D, Generosi RA, Marcos RL, Ramos L, Bjordal JM.
Laboratory of Human Movement (LMH), Sports Medicine Institute (IME), University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas, 1130, 95070-560, Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Our aim was to investigate the immediate effects of bilateral, 830 nm, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on high-intensity exercise and biochemical markers of skeletal muscle recovery, in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial set in a sports physiotherapy clinic. Twenty male athletes (nine professional volleyball players and eleven adolescent soccer players) participated. Active LLLT (830 nm wavelength, 100 mW, spot size 0.0028 cm(2), 3-4 J per point) or an identical placebo LLLT was delivered to five points in the rectus femoris muscle (bilaterally). The main outcome measures were the work performed in the Wingate test: 30 s of maximum cycling with a load of 7.5% of body weight, and the measurement of blood lactate (BL) and creatine kinase (CK) levels before and after exercise. There was no significant difference in the work performed during the Wingate test (P > 0.05) between subjects given active LLLT and those given placebo LLLT. For volleyball athletes, the change in CK levels from before to after the exercise test was significantly lower (P = 0.0133) for those given active LLLT (2.52 U l(-1) +/- 7.04 U l(-1)) than for those given placebo LLLT (28.49 U l(-1) +/- 22.62 U l(-1)). For the soccer athletes, the change in blood lactate levels from before exercise to 15 min after exercise was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the group subjected to active LLLT (8.55 mmol l(-1) +/- 2.14 mmol l(-1)) than in the group subjected to placebo LLLT (10.52 mmol l(-1) +/- 1.82 mmol l(-1)). LLLT irradiation before the Wingate test seemed to inhibit an expected post-exercise increase in CK level and to accelerate post-exercise lactate removal without affecting test performance. These findings suggest that LLLT may be of benefit in accelerating post-exercise recovery.
J Appl Physiol. 2006 Jul;101(1):283-8. Epub 2006 Apr 20.
Effect of low-level laser (Ga-Al-As 655 nm) on skeletal muscle fatigue induced by electrical stimulation in rats.
Lopes-Martins RA, Marcos RL, Leonardo PS, Prianti AC Jr, Muscará MN, Aimbire F, Frigo L, Iversen VV, Bjordal JM.
Department of Pharmacology, Laboratory of Biochemical Pharmacology of Free Radicals, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Brazil. email@example.com
We investigated whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can reduce muscular fatigue during tetanic contractions in rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups receiving either one of three different LLLT doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 J/cm2) or a no-treatment control group. Electrical stimulation was used to induce six tetanic muscle contractions in the tibial anterior muscle. Contractions were stopped when the muscle force fell to 50% of the initial value for each contraction (T50%). There was no significant difference between the 2.5 J/cm2 laser-irradiated group and the control group in mean T50% values. Laser-irradiated groups (0.5 and 1.0 J/cm2) had significantly longer T50% values than the control group. The relative peak force for the sixth contraction in the laser-irradiated groups were significantly higher at 92.2% (SD 12.6) for 0.5 J/cm2, 83.2% (SD 20.5) for 1.0 J/cm2, and 82.9% (SD 18.3) for 2.5 J/cm2 than for the control group [50% (SD 15)]. Laser groups receiving 0.5 and 1.0 J/cm2 showed significant increases in mean performed work compared with both the control group and their first contraction values. Muscle damage was indirectly measured by creatine kinase levels in plasma. A distinct dose-response pattern was found in which 1.0 and 2.5 J/cm2 LLLT groups had significantly lower creatine kinase levels than the 0.5 J/cm2 LLLT group and the control group. We conclude that LLLT doses of 0.5 and 1.0 J/cm2 can prevent development of muscular fatigue in rats during repeated tetanic contractions.