Laser Blood Irradiation

Lasers Med Sci. 2016 Jul 12. [Epub ahead of print]

Modifying effect of intravenous laser therapy on the protein expression of arginase and epidermal growth factor receptor in type 2 diabetic patients.

Kazemikhoo N1, Sarafnejad AF2, Ansari F3, Mehdipour P4.

Author information

  • 1Skin and Stem Cell Research center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 2Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 3Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
  • 4Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 14155-6447, Tehran, 14176-13151, Iran. mehdipor@tums.ac.ir.

Abstract

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway may be involved in cell activation and may influence the neuronal microenvironment, microglia activation, and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Arginase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) both use L-arginine as a common substrate. Decreasing the arginase expression may increase L-arginine consumption by NOS and increase nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) is an effective systemic treatment for different pathologies including diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have shown that low-level laser therapy can have an effect on the release of certain cytokines and growth factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ILBI on the expression of arginase and epidermal growth factor receptor in type 2 diabetic patients. We used 630 nm red laser light, 1.5 mW, continuous mode, intravenously for 30 min in 13 type 2 diabetic patients and compared their blood samples using the flow cytometry technique, before and after ILBI. The difference between the percentage of cells before and after therapy was analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA, and the relationship between EGFR and arginase expression in blood and tissue was evaluated by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient. We found a significant decrease in the expression of both arginase- and EGFR-positive cells after laser therapy (P?<?0.01). In conclusion, laser therapy may have a beneficial effect for diabetic patients via decreasing arginase expression and activation of the NOS/NO pathway which increases NO production and vasodilation, and decreasing EGFR expression which may reduce neuroinflammation and its secondary damages.

J Lasers Med Sci. 2016 Winter;7(1):16-20. doi: 10.15171/jlms.2016.04. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Evaluation of the Effects of Intravenous and Percutaneous Low Level Laser Therapy in the Management of Shoulder Myofascial Pain Syndrome.

Momenzadeh S1, Akhyani V2, Razaghi Z3, Ebadifar A4, Abbasi M5.

Author information

  • 1Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Akhtar Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 3Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 4Dentofacial Deformities Research Center Orthodontics Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 5Department of Urology, Boushehr University of Medical Sciences, Boushehr, Iran.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) treatment is challenging with a high recurrence rate and still lacks a clear treatment frame. Therefore research on new, more efficient and long lasting effect treatment modalities is necessary. This study looked at the effects ofintravenous laser therapy (IVL) and percutaneous low level laser (PLLL) in the management of shoulder MPS.

METHODS:

In this randomized controlled trial, 30 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were randomly equally allocated to 3 groups, control, IVL and PLLL. Control group received 12 sessions of placebo low level laser, IVL group received 12 sessions of IVL therapy, and PLLL group received 12 sessions of PLLL therapy. All patients were trained for better body posture, body mechanics, gentle massage of trigger points, stretching exercises of affected muscle (trapezius), and received 10 mg of oral nortriptyline regimen every night for 3 months. Outcomes included pain severity, functional disability, and quality of life. Patients were assessed using Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Pain Disability Index (PDI), and Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Mann-Whitney and t tests.

RESULTS:

The mean of PDI and maximum pain intensity during day and night significantly reduced in both PLLL and IVL groups compared to control group. Although pain severity and PDI reduction was more pronounced in IVL group compared to PLLL group, the differences were not statistically significant. Also, quality of life statistically significantly improved in both IVL and PLLL groups compared to control group was more, and although higher in IVL group, the difference was not statistically significant when compared to PLLL group. No side effects were observed in the intervention groups.

CONCLUSION:

Intravenous laser and PLLL therapy had a positive effect on pain severity and PDI reduction, and quality of life in this study. Also no adverse event was recorded. Thus, intravenous lasers and PLLL therapy seem to be effective complementary modalities in managing patients with shoulder MPS.

Lasers Med Sci. 2016 Apr;31(3):497-502. doi: 10.1007/s10103-016-1896-9. Epub 2016 Feb 11.

Effects of low level laser therapy on the prognosis of split-thickness skin graft in type 3 burn of diabetic patients: a case series.

Dahmardehei M1, Kazemikhoo N2, Vaghardoost R1, Mokmeli S3, Momeni M1, Nilforoushzadeh MA4,5, Ansari F4, Amirkhani A4.

Author information

  • 1Burn Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 2Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. nooshakazemi@gmail.com.
  • 3Canadian Optic and Laser Center, Victoria, BC, Canada.
  • 4Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 5Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract

Significant populations in burn centers are diabetic burn patients. Healing process in these patients is more difficult due to diabetes complications. The gold standard treatment for patients with grade 3 burn ulcer is split-thickness skin grafting (STSG), but in the diabetic patients, the rate of graft failure and amputation is high due to impaired tissue perfusion. The technique of low level laser therapy (LLLT) improves tissue perfusion and fibroblast proliferation, increases collagen synthesis, and accelerates wound healing. The purpose of this case report is introducing a new therapeutic method for accelerating healing with better prognosis in these patients. The protocols and informed consent were reviewed according to the Medical Ethics, Board of Shahid Beheshti Medical Sciences (IR.SBMU.RAM.REC.13940.363). Diabetic type 2 patients with 13 grade 3 burn ulcers, candidate for amputation, were enrolled in the study. We used a 650-nm red laser light, 2 J/Cm for the bed of the ulcer and an 810-nm infrared laser light 6 J/Cm(2) for the margins along with intravenous laser therapy with a 660-nm red light, before and after STSG for treating grade 3 burn ulcers in 13 diabetic ulcers. The results of this study showed complete healing in the last 8 weeks for all patients who were candidates for amputation. In this case series, we present 13 cases of diabetic ulcer with type 3 burn wound, candidate for amputation, who healed completely using LLLT and STSG. This is the first time that these two techniques are combined for treatment of burn ulcer in diabetic patients. Using LLLT with STSG might be a promising treatment for burn victims especially diabetic patients.

Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2016;(3):34-6.

Preventing cardiovascular risk in miners.

[Article in Russian]
Lipatova LV, Izmailova OA.

Abstract

The article presents results concerning usage of intravenous laser radiation of blood in miners with cardiovascular diseases. After cardiovascular state assessment, the miners at high cardiovascular risk were subjected to prophylactic procedures with traditional medical treatment added by intravenous laser therapy. Findings are anti-arrhythmic, antihypertensive, antiatherogenic and anti-aggregation effects of complex treatment with intravenous laser radiation of blood in miners at high cardiovascular risk and its subsequent decrease due to treatment.

Eksp Klin Gastroenterol. 2015;(11):45-9.

[[ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION AND ITS LOW-LEVEL LASER THERAPY CORRECTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC VIRAL HEPATITIS].

[Article in Russian]
Burduli NM, Krifaridi AS, Gutnova SK.

Abstract

The aim of the work to study the influence of the low-intensive laser therapy on the endothelium function in chronic virus hepatitis patients.

RESEARCH METHODS:

All patients have been divided into three groups: In the first (control) group (30 persons) the traditiona medicamentous therapy was used only, the patients of the experimental 11 group (45 person) alongside with complex medicamentous therapy received the course of intravenous laser therapy and Ill group of patients (45 person) received a rate complex medicamental and laser (cutaneous) therapy.

RESULTS:

Medicamentous therapy of patients chronic virus hepatites is not accompanied by authentic improvement of the maintenance in plasma of blood NOx, and inclusion in a complex of medical actions of laser therapy promotes authentic improvement of parameters in plasma ofblood NOx.

THE CONCLUSION:

Various methods of laser therapy improve NO–producing function endothelium, improve a functionacondition of vascular endothelium.

 Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2015 Jul-Aug;92(4):25-9.

[The influence of the low-frequency laser radiation on microcirculatory disorders in the patients presenting with chronic viral hepatitis].

[Article in Russian]
Burduli NM, Krifaridi AS, Gutnova SK.

Abstract

AIM:

The objective of the present study was to elucidate the character of microcirculatory disorders in the patients presenting with chronic viral hepatitis and to evaluate the possibilities for the correction of the associated disorders with the use of laser irradiation. Material and methods. All the patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 was comprised of 30 patients who were treated by means of traditional medicamental therapyalone; they served as controls. Group 2 consisted of 45 patients treated by intravenous laser irradiation in addition to traditional medicamentaltherapy. The patients of group 3 (n=45) received a course of laser skin treatment. The state of microcirculation was assessed by the laserDoppler flowmetry (LDF) technique with the help of a LAKK-02 apparatus (<<Lazma>> Research and Manufacturing Complex, Moscow, Russia).

RESULTS:

The study has demonstrated heterogeneity of the types of microcirculation with the statistically significant increase in the frequency of its pathological cases. All the patients treated with the use of low-intensity laser therapy exhibited a significant improvement of the blood flow characteristics regardless of the initial hemodynamic type of microcirculation.

CONCLUSION:

It is concluded that the application of laser irradiation as a component of the combined treatment of the patients presenting with chronic viral hepatitis facilitates correction of microcirculatory disorders.

Biofizika. 2015 May-Jun;60(3):534-41.

[On Individualization of Therapeutic Doses of Optical Radiation according to Changes in Parameters of BloodOxygenation].

[Article in Russian]
Zalesskaya GA.

Abstract

The effect of in vivo laser irradiation by optical radiation on blood from different patients is studied. The objects of research were three series ofblood samples from patients whose treatment course included extracorporeal UV blood irradiation, intravenous laser blood irradiation and supra-venous blood laser irradiation. Before and after irradiation the results on optic oximetry and gas content of venous blood were compared. The results of positive and negative influence of blood irradiation on characteristics of an oxygen exchange in separate patients and on the maintenance of some products of metabolism are represented. It is shown that at the same power dose, their changes depend on individual, initial values of hemoglobin oxygen saturation of venous blood and its photoinduced changes which objectively reflect individual sensitivity of patients to the action of optical radiation on blood and can be used for assessment of the efficiency of phototherapy.

Lasers Med Sci. 2015 May;30(4):1373-6. doi: 10.1007/s10103-015-1732-7. Epub 2015 Mar 24.

Study on the selection of laser wavelengths in the intravascular low-level laser irradiation therapy.

 Xu Y1, Lin Y, Gao S.
Author information
1Department of Basic Courses, Emei Campus of Southwest Jiaotong University, Emei, Sichuan, 614202, China, xyl2012@126.com.
Abstract
According to the absorption spectra of blood and hemoglobin, a photon-bond energy formula is established using physical methods and the effects on hemoglobin of low-level laser at different wavelengths are analyzed. The results show that lasers with the peak wavelengths of 200?240, 275, and 342 nm in the whole blood absorption spectra curve are easy to destroy protein molecules and then lead to hemoglobin lose biological activity. While lasers with wavelengths longer than 800 nm will reduce the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, only lasers with wavelengths between 630 and 670 nm have the best efficacy.
 .
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2015 Mar-Apr;92(2):9-11.

[The influence of low-intensity laser irradiation of blood on the lactoferrin level in the patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia].

[Article in Russian]
Gabueva AA, Burduli NM.

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of low-intensity laser irradiation of blood on the levels of lactoferrin in the patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

All the patients were divided into two groups. Those comprising the control group received only medicamental therapy. The standard treatment of the patients in the second group was supplemented by intravenous laser irradiation of blood (IVLIB-405 technique). Each irradiation session performed in a continuous mode lasted 5-7 minutes, with the total treatment course consisting of 7 daily procedures. Lactoferrin was determined before and after the treatment by the enzyme immunoassay with the use of “Lactoferrin Strip” kits (“Vektor-Best- Yug” JSC, Russia).

RESULTS:

Analysis of the results of the study revealed a significant decrease in the blood lactoferrin level down to the normal range in the patients treated with the use of laser therapy.

CONCLUSION:

The application of intravenous laser irradiation of blood for the combined treatment of the patients with community-acquired pneumonia was accompanied by normalization of the blood lactoferrin level and the improvement of the clinical course of the disease.

Laser Ther. 2015 Mar 31;24(1):15-26. doi: 10.5978/islsm.15-OR-02.

The use of Intravenous Laser Blood Irradiation (ILBI) at 630-640 nm to prevent vascular diseases and to increase life expectancy.

Mikhaylov VA1.

Author information

  • 1Eternity Medicine Institute, Dubai.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

The mortality rate from vascular diseases is one of the highest. The use of Intravenous Laser Blood Irradiation (ILBI) within the last 30 years has demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of vascular, cardiac and other systemic diseases.

RATIONALE:

Laser energy at 630-640 nanometers is arguably the most effective for irradiation of blood and the vascular wall. Photons at this wavelength are absorbed by oxygen, improve microcirculation, can change the viscosity of the blood and affect vascular endothelium.

CONCLUSIONS:

In summary, more than 25 years of experience of using laser energy at 630-640 nm has shown that this waveband directly influences the parameters of all cells in the blood, blood plasma, the coagulation process and all the structural components of the vascular wall. Additionally, ILBI directly or indirectly affects the cells of the immune system, hormones, and exchange processes in an organism, thereby not only improving the function of the vascular system, but also the other systems of an organism. It can finally lead to lower the incidence and number of vascular diseases, and indirectly to the reduction of the number of diseases in other organs and even systemically, thus helping to prolong the lifespan.

J Lasers Med Sci. 2015 Winter;6(1):6-9.

The intravenous laser blood irradiation in chronic pain and fibromyalgia.

Momenzadeh S1, Abbasi M2, Ebadifar A3, Aryani M1, Bayrami J1, Nematollahi F1.

Author information

  • 1Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 2Shohadaei Khalije Fars Hospital, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Boushehr, Iran.
  • 3Dentofacial Deformities Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Intravenous laser blood irradiation was first introduced into therapy by the Soviet scientists EN.Meschalkin and VS.Sergiewski in 1981. Originally this method was developed for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Improvement of rheologic properties of the blood as well as improvement of microcirculation and reduction of the area of infarction has been proved. Further, reduction of dysrhythmia and sudden cardiac death was achieved. At first, only the Helium-Neon laser (632.8 nm) was used in this therapy. For that, a power of 1-3mW and a period of exposure of 20-60 minutes were applied. The treatments were carried out once or twice a day up to ten appointments in all1. In the years after, many, and for the most part Russian studies showed that helium-neon laser had various effects on many organs and on the hematologic and immunologic system. The studies were published mainly in Russian which were little known in the West because of decades of political separation, and were regarded with disapproval. Besides clinical research and application for patients, the cell biological basis was developed by the Estonian cell biologist Tiina Karu at the same time. An abstract is to be found in her work “The Science of Low-Power Laser-Therapy”

Lasers Med Sci. 2015 Jan;30(1):363-6. doi:
10.1007/s10103-014-1672-7. Epub 2014 Oct 11.

Blue or red: which intravascular laser light has more effects in diabetic patients?

 KazemiKhoo N1, Ansari F.
Author information
1Department of Medical Genetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, nooshakazemi@gmail.com.
.
Abstract
The effects of intravascular laser irradiation of blood (ILIB), with 405 and 632.8 nm on serum blood sugar (BS) level, were comparatively studied. Twenty-four diabetic type 2 patients received 14 sessions of ILIB with blue and red lights. BS was measured before and after therapy. Serum BS decreased highly significant after ILIB with both red and blue lights (p<0.0001), but we did not find significant difference between red and blue lights. The ILIB effect would be of benefit in the clinical treatment of diabetic type 2 patients, irrespective of lasers (blue or red lights) that are used.
 .
Lasers Med Sci. 2015 Sep 25. [Epub ahead of print]

The effects of low-intensity He-Ne laser irradiation on erythrocyte metabolism.

Luo GY1, Sun L2, Wei EX3, Tan X4, Liu TC5.

Author information
1School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China.
2Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.
3Department of Otolaryngology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.
4Laboratory of Laser Sports Medicine, South China Normal University, University Town, Guangzhou, 510006, China.
5Department of Otolaryngology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA. liutcy@foxmail.com.
.
Abstract
Low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) can improve the deformability of red blood cells (RBCs). It might be due to the LILI effects on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level. However, ATP content may not be a valid surrogate marker for RBC deformability. The LILI effects on RBC glycolysis were studied in this paper. Hypertonic RBCs were used in this study. After 5 min irradiation with low-intensity He-Ne laser irradiation (LHNL) at 632.8 nm and 4.4 mW/cm2, the concentration of intracellular glucose and the activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were measured, respectively. There was no significant change in intracellular glucose concentration. The activity of PFK decreased significantly, but the activity of GAPDH increased significantly. In hypertonic RBCs, LHNL irradiation may decrease the activity of energy-consuming enzymes, but increases the activity of energy-generating enzymes in glycolysis, to improve the RBC deformability.
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2015 May-Jun;92(3):11-3.

The influence of intravenous laser irradiation of the blood on the dynamics of leptin levels and the quality of life of the patients presenting with rheumatoid arthritis.

Burduli NN, Burduli NM.

Abstract

AIM:

The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of intravenous laser irradiation of the blood on the dynamics of leptin levels and the quality of life of the patients presenting with rheumatoid arthritis.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

A total of 132 patients at the age varying from 18 to 65 (mean 52.9 ± 11.3) years presenting with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were available for the examination. The diagnosis of RA was based on the results of clinical, laboratory, and instrumental studies in accordance with the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) dated 2010. The patients were divided into two groups. The control group was comprised of the patients who received the traditional medicamental treatment alone (n = 30) while the study group consisted of the patients given a course of intravenous laser irradiation of the blood in addition to the traditional medicamental treatment (n = 102).The course of intravenous laser therapy was performed with the use of a Matrix-VLOK apparatus (“Matrix”, Russia) by means of the VLOK + UBI procedure. Each course consisted of 10 sessions per patient without a break for the weekend.

RESULTS:

The data obtained indicate that the patients with rheumatoid arthritis had the increased plasma leptin level suggesting the development of the inflammatory process. Moreover, the quality of the patients’ life was deteriorated.

CONCLUSION:

The results of this study demonstrate that the combined treatment by means of low-intensity laser irradiation is accompanied by the normalization of the plasma leptin level, suppression of the inflammatory process, and a significant improvement of the quality of life of the patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2014 Oct;32(10):582-587.

Effects of Intravascular Low-Level Laser Therapy During Coronary Intervention on Selected Growth Factors Levels.

Derkacz A1, Protasiewicz M, Rola P, Podgorska K, Szymczyszyn A, Gutherc R, Por?ba R, Doroszko A.

Author information

  • 11 Department of Internal Medicine and Hypertension, Wroclaw Medical University , Wroclaw, Poland .

Abstract

Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravascular low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on selected growth factor levels in subjects undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI).

Background data: Restenosis remains the main problem with the long-term efficacy of PCI, and growth factors are postulated to play a crucial role in the restenosis cascade.

Materials and methods: In a randomized prospective study, an 808nm LLLT (100mW/cm2, continuous wave laser, 9J/cm2, illuminated area 1.6-2.5cm2) was delivered intracoronarily to patients during PCI. Fifty-two patients underwent irradiation with laser light, and 49 constituted the control group. In all individuals, serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-1), and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) were measured before angioplasty, then 6 and 12h and 1 month after the procedure. In all patients, a control angiography was performed 6 months later.

Results: There were no significant differences in IGF-1 and VEGF levels between the groups. While evaluating FGF-2, we observed its significantly lower levels in the irradiated patients during each examination. There was a significant increase in TGF-1 level in control group after 12h of observation. In the irradiated individuals, control angiography revealed smaller late lumen loss and smaller late lumen loss index as compared with the control group. The restenosis rate was 15.0% in the treated group, and 32.4% in the control group, respectively.

Conclusions: LLLT decreases levels of TGF-?1 and FGF-2 in patients undergoing coronary intervention, which may explain smaller neointima formation.

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2014;114(7):43-8.

Effect of intravenous laser irradiation on some blood biochemical indicators in the acute stage of lacunar infarcts.

[Article in Russian]
[No authors listed]

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the dynamics of lipid metabolism, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in lacunar infarction (LI) in chronic cerebral ischemia.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Two groups of patients were studied. The main group included 31 patients who received intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) with semiconductor laser (wavelength – 0.67 microns, the power output – 3-2 mW) in addition to standard treatment. Patients of the control group (n=22) received only standard treatment.

RESULTS:

A statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol levels to normal values due to the significant reduction of the content of antiatherogenic fraction of cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein and atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) was found in the main group after treatment. The reduction in atherogenic cholesterol fractions in both groups was associated with the decrease in apolipoprotein B level. The level of CRP was higher than normal in the main and control groups of patients before and after treatment, which indicated the risk of vascular diseases in patients with LI. After treatment, superoxide dismutase activity returned to normal values. In patients of the main group, the catalase activity increased while the level of reduced glutathione did not change and lipid peroxidation products remained on the high level.

CONCLUSION:

Additional antioxidant therapy is needed for these patients.

Eksp Klin Gastroenterol. 2014;(9):39-43.

Dynamics of autonomic regulation and daily pH-metry in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease under the influence of low-intensity laser irradiation of blood.

[Article in Russian]
Burduli NM, Balayan MM.

Abstract

102 patients with GERD were examined: 70 female (68%) and 32 men (32%). Age of respondents ranged from 20 to 65 years (average of 45.8 ±8,2). All patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the first (control) group (30 people) traditional drug treatment were used according to the standard therapy of GERD (proton pump inhibitors, antacids, prokinetics), patients in the second (main) group (70 people) along with drug therapy has received a course of intravenous laser therapy according to the methods ILIB-405. For intravenous laser treatment Russian apparatus “Matrix-ILIB” (“Matrix”, Russia) was used with wavelength 0,405 m, output power at the end of the main optical path of 1-1.5 mW. Laser blood irradiation was carried out for 15 minutes in the CW mode, the course of treatment was 10 daily treatments with a break on Saturday and Sunday. Conclusions: 1. Intravenouslaser irradiation of blood in the complex therapy of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease improved significantly of HRV due to the alignment of parasympathetic regulation circuit and reducing the activity of sympathetic autonomic regulation, 2. the inclusion of intravenous laser irradiation of blood in the complex therapy of patients with GERD was accompanied by reliable normalization of the indicators of the daily pH-metry of the esophagus in patients with GERD.

Klin Khir. 2014 Mar;(3):37-40.

Comparative evaluation of effectiveness of the combined immunocorrection in patients suffering severe craniocerebral trauma.

[Article in Russian]
Marerrambeli ISh, Mirzoeva VS.

Abstract

Comparative estimation of clinical efficacy of various immunocorrection schemes for the immune state correction was conducted in 106 patients in conditions ofsevere craniocerebral trauma (SCCT), combined application of immunofan and intravenous laser irradiation of blood (IVLIB). In 32 patients (I group) a standard intensive therapy (SITH) was conducted: in 21 (II group)–immunofan was applied additionally; in 25 (III group)–in addition to SITH IVLIB was conducted; in 28 (IV group)–immunofan solution was infused and sessions of IVLIB (3 – 4 sessions a day) on a background of SITH were conducted. The immunity indices were analyzed on the 1 – 2, 5 – 6-th and 9 -10-th days after trauma. Estimation of the combined therapy efficacy have shown, that in SCCT she renders a significant immunocorrecting effect on the 5 – 6-th days already, on the 9 – 10-th days the immune state parameters were really normalized, reduction of the complications rate by 26% and of lethality by 8.6% was noted.

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2014;114(7):43-48.

Effect of intravenous laser irradiation on some blood biochemical indicators in the acute stage of lacunar infarcts.

[Article in Russian]
Nechipurenko NI1, Anatskaia LN, Matusevich LI, Pashkovskaia ID, Shcherbina NI.

Author information

  • 1Respublikanski nauchno-prakticheski tsentr nevrologii i nerokhirurgii Ministerstva zdravookhraneniia Respubliki Belarus’, Minsk.

Abstract

Objective. To investigate the dynamics of lipid metabolism, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in lacunar infarction (LI) in chronic cerebral ischemia.

Material and methods. Two groups of patients were studied. The main group included 31 patients who received intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) with semiconductor laser (wavelength – 0.67 microns, the power output – 3-2 mW) in addition to standard treatment. Patients of the control group (n=22) received only standard treatment.

Results. A statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol levels to normal values due to the significant reduction of the content of antiatherogenic fraction of cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein and atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) was found in the main group after treatment. The reduction in atherogenic cholesterol fractions in both groups was associated with the decrease in apolipoprotein B level. The level of CRP was higher than normal in the main and control groups of patients before and after treatment, which indicated the risk of vascular diseases in patients with LI. After treatment, superoxide dismutase activity returned to normal values. In patients of the main group, the catalase activity increased while the level of reduced glutathione did not change and lipid peroxidation products remained on the high level.

Conclusion. Additional antioxidant therapy is needed for these patients.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2014 May-Jun;(3):9-12.

[The influence of intravenous laser therapy on the endothelial function and the state of microcirculation in the patients presenting with rheumatoid arthritis].

[Article in Russian]
Kulova LA, Burduli NM.

Abstract

AIM:

The objective of the present work was to study effects of low-level laser irradiation on the endothelial function and selected parameters of microcirculation in the patients presenting with rheumatoid arthritis.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

This study included 132 patients at the age varying from 18 to 85 years presenting with rheumatoid arthritis. They were divided into 2 groups. The patients of the main group (n = 102) underwent daily intravenous laser blood irradiation during 10 days. The control group was comprised of 30 patients. Laser therapy was performed with the help of a laser therapeutic device Matrix – VLOK (“Matrix”, Russia) using alternation of two radiating heads: KI-VLOK-63 (wavelength 0.63 pm, for 15 minutes) and KI-VLOK-365 (wavelength 0.365 microm, for 5 minutes) in the continuous emission regime. The parameters of interest were measured before and after the treatment. The overall duration of intravenous laser irradiation of blood was 10 days without a break for the weekend.

RESULTS:

The data obtained suggest the improvement of the endothelial function and the microcirculation indices.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2014 May-Jun;(3):9-12.

The influence of intravenous laser therapy on the endothelial function and the state of microcirculation in the patients presenting with rheumatoid arthritis.

[Article in Russian]
[No authors listed]

Abstract

AIM:

The objective of the present work was to study effects of low-level laser irradiation on the endothelial function and selected parameters of microcirculation in the patients presenting with rheumatoid arthritis.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

This study included 132 patients at the age varying from 18 to 85 years presenting with rheumatoid arthritis. They were divided into 2 groups. The patients of the main group (n = 102) underwent daily intravenous laser blood irradiation during 10 days. The control group was comprised of 30 patients. Laser therapy was performed with the help of a laser therapeutic device Matrix – VLOK (“Matrix”, Russia) using alternation of two radiating heads: KI-VLOK-63 (wavelength 0.63 pm, for 15 minutes) and KI-VLOK-365 (wavelength 0.365 microm, for 5 minutes) in the continuous emission regime. The parameters of interest were measured before and after the treatment. The overall duration of intravenous laser irradiation of blood was 10 days without a break for the weekend.

RESULTS:

The data obtained suggest the improvement of the endothelial function and the microcirculation indices.

Case Rep Med. 2014; 2014: 923496.
Published online 2014 Mar 4. doi:  10.1155/2014/923496
PMCID: PMC3970446

Intravenous Laser Blood Irradiation and Tocilizumab in a Patient with Juvenile Arthritis

Dragos Andrei Chiran, 1 Michael Weber, 2 Laura Marinela Ailioaie, 3 , 4 Eovelina Moraru, 1 , 5 Constantin Ailioaie, 1 , 4 , 5Daniela Litscher, 6 and Gerhard Litscher 6 ,*
1Faculty of Medicine, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 16 Universitatii Street, 700115 Iasi, Romania
2Institute for Laser Therapy and Acupuncture, Sohnreystraße 6, 37697 Lauenförde, Germany
3Department of Medical Physics, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 11 Carol I Boulevard, 700506 Iasi, Romania
4Laser Clinic, 83 Arcu Street, 700135 Iasi, Romania
5Second Pediatric Clinic, Street Mary Emergency Hospital for Children, 62 Vasile Lupu St., 700309 Iasi, Romania
6Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036 Graz, Austria
*Gerhard Litscher: ta.zarginudem@rehcstil.drahreg
Academic Editor: Larry W. Moreland
Received 2013 Dec 26; Accepted 2014 Jan 27.

Abstract

This study presents effects of intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) in a transient immunodeficiency patient with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) treated with an interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor (Tocilizumab). Biological agents induce JIA remission, but some patients do not respond favorably to this final therapeutic line of defense. ILBI was performed in a 16-year-old male patient, with JIA and transient immunodeficiency. When ILBI was introduced, the patient was receiving disease-modifying drugs, steroids, tocilizumab, and physical therapy. Because the disease was not well controlled, ILBI was applied in addition to other ongoing therapies. The patient underwent 1 session daily, and 10 successive sessions per month, repeated every 3 months, for 7 months. Patient evaluation was performed before ILBI was started and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after ILBI initiation, using the ACR Pediatric response. The outcome was evaluated using Pediatric 50, 70, and 90 responses and compared to initial status, after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. At the end of study, the titre of IgA and IgG levels returned to normal. Synergistic anti-inflammatory effect of ILBI was evident, if applied additionally in combination with tocilizumab, in a patient with a therapy-resistant severe form of JIA and related subacute transient immunodeficiency.

1. Introduction

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an inflammatory disorder of the connective tissues, characterized by joint swelling, pain, and tenderness. Overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) is a well-known fact in JIA. Increased levels of these cytokines, both in serum and synovial fluid, induce the production of vascular endothelial factor, triggering angiogenesis in the affected joint. IL-6 is also considered responsible for osteoclast differentiation, followed by joint destruction and osteoporosis [1].

In the last decade, the development of biological agents that target these key inflammatory cytokines or their receptors brought new horizons in JIA treatment. Disease remission became a reachable goal [2]. However, few patients develop a severe chronic rheumatic type of the disease [3]. TNF-? inhibitors are the first-line biological agents used in JIA, if therapy with anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) proved to be inefficient. IL-6 receptor inhibition with Tocilizumab is a new second-line therapy for anti-TNF-? nonresponding patients, based on the blockade of IL-6-regulated signaling pathways [1, 2]. The main disadvantage of DMARDs and biologics is the temporary effect of immunosuppression [4].

Photobiostimulation could be able to modulate the immune system response. There are some studies that have shown the effect of intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) in several immune-related diseases [5] and some studies of the authors with regard to ILBI in JIA patients [6], but there is no data at all about ILBI in association with Tocilizumab.

2. Patient and Method

A 16-year-old male was admitted in July 2011 to “St. Mary” Emergency Hospital for Children, Iasi, Romania, and was diagnosed with JIA—persistent oligoarthritis type. He reported swollenness of right ankle and left knee, pain, and walking difficulties.

Family history was remarkable for rheumatoid arthritis (mother) and type I diabetes mellitus (grandmother). His past medical history revealed scarlet fever (2004), right elbow fracture (2005), viral meningitis (2007), type A hepatitis (2009), and recurrent enteritis and infectious mononucleosis (2011).

Inflammation markers were increased: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) = 45?mm [n < 15?mm/1?h]; fibrinogen = 520?mg/dL [n = 200–400?mg/dL]; C-reactive protein (CRP) = 15.2?mg/dL [n < 6?mg/dL]. Both IgG and IgM antibodies for Epstein-Barr virus were positive. Rheumatoid factor, anti-streptolysin O antibodies, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV type 1, and HIV type 2 antibodies were negative. Blood, urine, and stool cultures were negative.

He received treatment with NSAIDs, intra-articular Prednisolone (50?mg/large joint, every 3 months), a DMARD (Methotrexate, 20?mg/week), and physical therapy.

In the following six months, the patient had epidemic parotitis and several chest infections, most probable due to the immunosuppressant effect of Methotrexate. He recovered completely and continued to take his regular medication for JIA.

In February 2012, the patient returned to our clinic, evolving to severe oligoarthritis–extended type. Inflammation markers titers were higher that time (ESR = 78?mm/h, fibrinogen = 728?mg/dL, CRP = 162?mg/dL) and selective IgA (12?mg/dL, n = 70–400?mg/dL) and IgG (230?mg/dL, n = 700–1600?mg/dL) deficiencies were firstly detected. Levels of circulating immune complexes (104.5??g/mL) [n < 40??g/mL] and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (28.6?U/mL) [n < 15?U/mL] were increased. HLA-B27 test was negative. Bone marrow aspirate excluded malignancy.

On the top of current medication, an anti-TNF-? agent (Etanercept—0.4?mg/kg, twice a week) was introduced together with 5 daily IV injections of Prednisolone (30?mg/kg, max 1?g). The patient was discharged on Methotrexate, Etanercept, and oral corticosteroids in daily alternation with NSAIDs. A proton-pump inhibitor (PPI), Omeprazole (20?mg once daily), was associated to the anti-inflammatory medication to counterbalance its gastrointestinal side effects. Etanercept represents the first biological agent to be introduced in JIA in Romania, according to national guidelines, which are in accordance with the European guidelines [7].

In May 2012 the patient was readmitted to the hospital with an altered general status, prolonged intermittent pyrexia, violent pain, swelling, and important polyarticular dysfunctions (16 joints with active arthritis, 47 joints with limited range of motion). The diagnosis was revised to polyarthritis (FR negative) and acquired immunodeficiency. Etanercept was changed to an anti-IL-6 receptor inhibitor (Tocilizumab—8?mg/kg, every 2 weeks) due to the poor response to anti-TNF-? therapy, and opiate analgesics were introduced as required. Normally, anti-TNF-? therapy is revised after 3 months, and decision to change the biologic agent is made if the ongoing one is not controlling the disease.

In August 2012, the patient maintained almost the same diseases activity, objectified by ACR core set data [8]. While JIA was not controlled, IgA and IgG deficiencies were still present, and the patient did not respond to two biological agents from different classes of action (Etanercept, followed by Tocilizumab), the decision was made to try additional ILBI on the top of ongoing medication, as a last resort.

It is important to mention that, in Romania, Etanercept is the only medication for JIA which has the entire cost reimbursed by Romanian National Health Insurance House at present [7]. Tocilizumab is a new biologic that recently entered in our University Pediatric Clinic through a pilot program and is reserved to severe cases which do not respond to Etanercept.

We have clearly explained the ILBI method to the patient and the family; we informed them that there were cases where ILBI was applied in adults with immune disorders successfully without side effects, but still it has not been applied before in children or adolescents with JIA who simultaneously take Tocilizumab.

With the involvement of all the authors, we managed to offer the patient, free of charge, the possibility of receiving intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) using a Weberneedle Endolaser (weber medical, Lauenförde, Germany; see also Figure 1).

Figure 1

Weberneedle Endolaser. The following wavelengths were used: 630?nm (red), 536?nm (green), and 405?nm (violet).

The patient and family consented, and on the top of ongoing therapy 30 ILBI sessions were given over 6 months.

ILBI protocol used 3 different wavelengths, administered to the patient in the following sequence: red radiation (630?nm) at the beginning of the session, followed by green radiation (536?nm) and blue (violet) radiation (405?nm) at the end. The reason for this sequence was to deliver an increasing amount of energy to the blood stream (because a blue (violet) photon has more energy than a red photon). The laser device delivered a 5?mW maximum output power in the continuous mode. The patient received 20 minutes of laser radiation for each wavelength, 60 minutes in total, per session.

The patient underwent 1 session daily and 10 successive sessions per month, repeated every 3 months, for 7 months long (30 sessions in total). To assess ILBI outcome, patient evaluation was performed before ILBI was started and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively, after initiation of this therapeutic method (Table 1).

Table 1

Timeline for ILBI set of sessions and ACR Pedi evaluation.

Laser radiation was given into a vein located at the cubital region, by a sterile optical fiber, which was passing through the lumen of a butterfly needle (size 21G). Proper skin disinfection was performed before the vein puncture. The needle and the external part of the optical fiber were immobilized to the patient forearm with adhesive tape. At the end of the session the needle and the catheter were extracted and a sterile swab was applied at the puncture site. Skin desensitization with local anesthetic cream was not necessary due to the patient’s excellent compliance to vein puncture.

3. Results

First evaluation after ILBI revealed a good improvement in pain (35% less on visual scale), joint count (active arthritis,9 joints, limited movement,30 joints), clinical assessment, and ESR. The patient fulfilled the ACR Pediatric 50 response, and oral corticosteroids were excluded by a decreasing-dose protocol.

ACR Pediatric 30 (50, 70, 90, resp.) criteria, which we used in our evaluation, are defined as improvement of more or 30% (50%, 70%, 90%, resp.), in at least 3 of the 6 core set variables used to assess disease activity, with no more than 1 variable worsening by more or 30% [8].

After finishing all 30 ILBI sessions (6 months), the patient had an ACR Pediatric 70 response. Laboratory findings displayed normal IgA and IgG levels.

At 9 months from ILBI initiation (May 2013), the patient displayed an ACR Pediatric 90 response. Inflammation markers and immunoglobulin titers were normal. This promising outcome due to ILBI allowed the withdrawing of Methotrexate and NSAIDs, and patient continued only on Tocilizumab.

At 12 months from ILBI initiation (August 2013), the patient continued only on Tocilizumab managing to maintain an ACR Pediatric 90 response, and the inflammation markers were normal. Another evaluation after another 3-month period, in November 2013, was not possible as the patient and his family moved abroad. Figure 2 displays the evolution of ESR between July 2011 and August 2013.

Figure 2

ESR evolution between July 2011 and August 2013.

4. Discussions

ILBI represented a therapeutic solution for a patient who was not responding to remissive treatment with DMARDs, steroids, and two biological agents targeting different inflammatory cytokines. Laser therapy is not a conventional method within the standard international treatment protocols for JIA [3].

ILBI was performed firstly in the former Soviet Union at the beginning of 1980s. At that time, the results were only published in Russian, and this therapeutic method remained mostly in a corner of shadow in Europe and the United States, up to 10 years ago [5].

In this case study, the therapeutic protocol was the same before and during the first 2 sets of ILBI sessions, consisting in Tocilizumab, Methotrexate, corticosteroids, and painkillers. The only difference was the additional laser irradiation. Thus, ILBI increased the effect of IL-6 receptor inhibition, and possibly triggered further immunomodulatory responses.

ESR evolution from July 2011 to August 2012 shows how the inflammatory response evolved and that it was not effectively controlled, even if classical DMARDs, corticosteroids, Etanercept, and Tocilizumab were introduced. Figure 2 displays the shift produced in the patient’s overall inflammatory response after the two sets of ILBI sessions. Even if we cannot fully explain all the phenomena al cellular level, the descending trend of this inflammation marker, after ILBI initiation, supports the immunomodulatory effect of low-level laser radiation.

The normalized ESR values and the ACR Pedi 90 response maintained for another 3-month interval, from May 2013 to August 2013, show that ILBI managed to have a beneficial anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory intervention which shifted the clinical evolution of the patient into a positive direction. However, we cannot give information if ILBI would have required a periodic maintenance, as the patient had a very good clinical response, and only Tocilizumab was kept as single therapy. At the moment, we do not have data regarding ILBI administration for more than three consecutive sets of 10 sessions per month [6]. Unfortunately, there are no other data in the scientific literature regarding ILBI and Tocilizumab synergic administration that we could comment upon.

The first evaluation after 3 months from ILBI initiation, immediately after the second set of laser sessions, allowed the consultant doctor who was supervising the patient to exclude the sistemic corticosteroid therapy. Our local practice protocol places an emphasis on limiting the use of steroidal medication, due to its important side effects. An ACR Pedi 50 response was a clear indication for discontinuation of the corticosteroids, with gradual withdrawing. The tapering of the steroid dose was done during a 10-day interval to prevent steroid withdrawal symptoms. However, we cannot evaluate if there was another interaction between the laser radiation and corticosteroid therapy, except the overall anti-inflammatory synergistic effect.

Before starting ILBI and during the first month after ILBI initiation, the patient received opiate medication on an as-required basis (Codeine Phosphate, 15–30?mg per oral, up to three times a day, depending on the pain intensity). After that time, he remained on his monthly prescription which included, besides the remissive treatment, only NSAIDs as painkillers.

Photosensitization is a side effect that affects the skin of 1 to 3% of the patients receiving Methotrexate or NSAIDs, according to the manufacturers’ official product information leaflet. This phenomenon appears when a “light sensitive” compound, like Methotrexate, is exposed mainly to UVA radiation. Surveying this possible side effect during ILBI was a priority for us. We also advised the patient to avoid direct sunlight and to use protective creams for the sun-exposed skin areas at all times, during Metotrexate and NSAIDs administration.

This patient did not report any photosensitization reactions. Any photosensitization reaction would have leaded to laser therapy discontinuation. It is important to mention that the laser device delivered only a 5?mW maximum output power in the continuous mode, and the blue radiation (405?nm) which is closer to the UVA spectrum lasted only for 20 minutes per session.

When ACR Pedi 90 response was obtained, after 9 months from ILBI initiation, Methotrexate and NSAIDs were discontinued. Methotrexate discontinuation was awaited due to its nontargeted immunosuppressant effect.

The transient immunodeficiency the patient encountered was most probably due to immunosuppressive treatment with Methotrexate. This was revealed by the often infectious diseases the patient developed and also by altered specific laboratory findings. The association between JIA and acquired immunodeficiency could represent a challenge, for both the doctor and the family of the affected child.

NSAIDs have a well-known renal toxicity, together with an increased risk for gastrointestinal (GI) and cardiovascular side effects, when given on a long-term basis [9]. To counteract the GI unwanted disturbances, a PPI was associated. Moreover, when the patient clinical status allowed, NSAIDs were withdrawn to eliminate their toxicity entirely, and the patient continued only on biologic medication. Regarding the interaction between NSAIDs and ILBI we needed to constantly evaluate for an unwanted reaction of photosensitization, which did not occur in this case study.

The patient and his family consented for starting ILBI, even if there is no data regarding its application in JIA patients who receive Tocilizumab. But the information with regard to its value in other immunological conditions [5] constituted a promising background.

The result obtained after 9 and 12 months from the initiation of laser therapy points to the immunomodulatory effect of ILBI.

There is data in the literature pointing to the effect of laser radiation in experimentally induced acute inflammation in rat lungs by decreasing the titers of proinflammatory cytokines, like TNF-? [10, 11] and IL-6 [10]. Aimbire et al. concluded that these effects are dose dependent [10] and Boschi et al. suggested that the decrease in IL-6 titers could even occur at lower laser energy-delivered doses, compared to the ones necessary for TNF-? titre reduction [11]. Bjordal et al. revealed that there is strong evidence, from 19 out of 22 placebo-controlled laboratory studies, regarding the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6, and IFN-?) in the laser-irradiated animal subjects [12].

Following the same pathway in which laser radiation decreases the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, Shiba et al. proved that Nd:YAG laser radiation can abolish the increase in IL-6 levels in vitro, in human pulp cells [13].

A different hypothesis, explaining the beneficial effect ILBI had in our JIA patient, who was also receiving an IL-6 receptor antagonist, could be that laser radiation increases the blocking effect of Tocilizumab on the IL-6-regulated inflammation pathways. This effect can be paralleled with the in vitro research done by Reale et al. on human monocytes, who displayed that infrared laser irradiation enhances IL-1 receptor antagonist [14].

According to Miyazawa et al. IL-1beta stimulated rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) produce IL-6 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In this study they demonstrated how the IL-6 promoter is transcriptionally regulated in rheumatoid FLSs in response to a physiologically relevant mediator of inflammation, IL-1beta [15]. So, inhibiting the IL-1 pathway with laser radiation [14] could reduce the production of IL-6, and Tocilizumab molecules might have “less” IL-6 molecules to compete with, at IL-6 receptor level.

The influence on the IL-6 pathway by IL-1 activity was also demonstrated by Radtke et al. who showed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, which are previously activated by IL-1beta, impair IL-6-induced signalling through phosphorylation of the common cytokine receptor subunit gp130 and determine its subsequent internalisation and degradation [16]. Following this rationale, we could suppose that laser radiation could have determined a membrane IL-6 receptor downregulation. IL-6 receptors exit in membrane (mIL-6R) and soluble (sIL-6R) forms. The later appears via proteolytic cleavage of the mIL-6R, which leads to the generation sIL-6R [17].

Downregulating mIL-6R would also decrease the titres of sIL-6R, and this would mean a greater probability for a Tocilizumab molecule to bind to either a mIL-6R or a sIL-6R in the competition with the serum IL-6 molecules. The result would be a more efficient IL-6 proinflammatory blockade.

A third explanation for the positive immunomodulatory effect ILBI could be the capacity of laser radiation to balance the proinflammatory status by increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokines. Animal studies revealed increased IL-10 after low-level laser stimulation [18].

Because, at the end of the ILBI sessions, the patient not only had a favorable clinical response, but also displayed normal IgA and IgG levels, we assume that laser therapy acted on several pathways in modulating the immune response.

There is strong evidence for ILBI efficacy, demonstrated by the favourable change in the evolution of the patient. Before administering ILBI, the patient was already on an unfavourable evolution for 3 months, even if he was receiving Tocilizumab. ILBI was applied on top of the existing treatment protocol, and everything else remained unchanged for another 3 months. Thus we consider that the improvement in the patient condition and the ability to start controlling the disease is not a statistical variation in the population and the disease group, regardless the use of ILBI.

Our case study opens the way for further studies on statistically significant groups of patients, in order to verify the promising results we encountered with ILBI and an IL-6 receptor antagonist in JIA.

5. Conclusions

Synergistic anti-inflammatory effect of intravenous laser blood irradiation was evident, if applied in combination with Tocilizumab, in a patient with a therapy-resistant severe form of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and related subacute transient immunodeficiency.

Further studies are necessary to verify this association efficacy, which we found for the first time in the scientific literature.

Acknowledgments

The first author would like to express his gratitude for all the scientific support he received from Professor Dr. Eovelina Moraru, Head of the Second Pediatric Clinic, St. Mary Emergency Hospital for Children of Iasi, and also his Ph.D. Research Program Coordinator at “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iasi. The last two authors would like to thank the German Academy of Acupuncture (DAA; President Professor Frank Bahr) and Ms. Ingrid Gaischek, M.S. (Medical University of Graz), for the support and help.

Disclosure

No competing financial interests exist. The present case study is part of the first author’s PhD research program, regarding the study of biological agents in juvenile idiopathic arthritis, at the “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iasi. Intravenous laser blood irradiation was offered free of charge to our patient with the help of Laser Clinic of Iasi, represented by Associate Professor Dr. Constantin Ailioaie, who was also the patient’s current consultant physician at the Second Pediatric Clinic, St. Mary Emergency Hospital for Children of Iasi. The laser therapy was performed using a device from Weber Medical GmbH. There was no other financial support from the manufacturing company.

Conflict of Interests

The Austrian authors declare no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

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13. Shiba H, Tsuda H, Kajiya M, et al. Neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser irradiation abolishes the increase in interleukin-6 levels caused by peptidoglycan through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human pulp cells. Journal of Endodontics. 2009;35(3):373–376. [PubMed]
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Eksp Klin Gastroenterol. 2014;(9):35-8.

The effect of low-level laser therapy on gastric mucosa microcirculation in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

[Article in Russian]
Burduli NM, Tadtaeva DY.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To study the influence of laser radiation on the parameters of microcirculation in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The examined 112 patients with GERD aged 19 to 79 years. 78 patients were given a ten-day course ofintravenous laser therapy, which was conducted with the help of the apparatus of laser therapy “matrix-vlok” (produced by “the matrix”, Russia) with wavelength 0,405 microns, the radiation power at the output of the main fiber 1-1,5 mW, continuous mode radiation. The studied parameters were determined before and after treatment.

RESULTS:

The obtained data testify to the improvement of microcirculation in patients with GERD under the influence of laser therapy.

Eksp Klin Gastroenterol. 2014;(9):39-43.

Dynamics of autonomic regulation and daily pH-metry in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease under the influence of low-intensity laser irradiation of blood.

[Article in Russian]
Burduli NM, Balayan MM.

Abstract

102 patients with GERD were examined: 70 female (68%) and 32 men (32%). Age of respondents ranged from 20 to 65 years (average of 45.8 ±8,2). All patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the first (control) group (30 people) traditional drug treatment were used according to the standard therapy of GERD (proton pump inhibitors, antacids, prokinetics), patients in the second (main) group (70 people) along with drug therapy has received a course of intravenous laser therapy according to the methods ILIB-405. For intravenous laser treatment Russian apparatus “Matrix-ILIB” (“Matrix”, Russia) was used with wavelength 0,405 ?m, output power at the end of the main optical path of 1-1.5 mW. Laser bloodirradiation was carried out for 15 minutes in the CW mode, the course of treatment was 10 daily treatments with a break on Saturday and Sunday. Conclusions: 1. Intravenous laser irradiation of blood in the complex therapy of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease improved significantly of HRV due to the alignment of parasympathetic regulation circuit and reducing the activity of sympathetic autonomic regulation, 2. the inclusion of intravenous laser irradiation of blood in the complex therapy of patients with GERD was accompanied by reliable normalization of the indicators of the daily pH-metry of the esophagus in patients with GERD.

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Lasers Med Sci. 2013 Nov;28(6):1527-32. doi: 10.1007/s10103-012-1247-4. Epub 2013 Jan 29.

A metabolomic study on the effect of intravascular laser blood irradiation on type 2 diabetic patients.

Kazemi Khoo N1, Iravani A, Arjmand M, Vahabi F, Lajevardi M, Akrami SM, Zamani Z.

Author information

  • 1Department of Medical Genetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, kazemikho@razi.tums.ac.ir.

Abstract

Intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) is widely applied in the treatment of different pathologies including diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ILBI on the metabolites of blood in diabetic type 2 patients using metabolomics. We compared blood samples of nine diabetic type 2 patients, using metabolomics, before and after ILBI with blue light laser. The results showed significant decrease in glucose, glucose 6 phosphate, dehydroascorbic acid, R-3-hydroxybutyric acid, L-histidine, and L-alanine and significant increase in L-arginine level in blood and blood sugar in the patients have reduced significantly (p?<?0.05). This study clearly demonstrated a significant positive effect of ILBI on metabolites of blood in diabetic type 2 patients. These findings support the therapeutic potential of ILBI in diabetic patients.

Bull Exp Biol Med. 2013 Sep;155(5):598-600.

Role of nitric oxide in responses of pial arterial vessels to low-intensity red laser irradiation.

Gorshkova OP1, Shuvaeva VN, Dvoretsky DP.

Author information

  • 1I. P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia. vshuv@kolt.infran.ru.

Abstract

The responses of rat pial vessels to red laser irradiation can be mediated by NO. NO mainly affects major arteries and did not contribute to reactivity of small pial arteries and precortical arterioles.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2013 Sep-Oct;(5):33-5.

The influence of low-intensity intravenous laser irradiation of the blood on the endothelial function in the patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

[Article in Russian]
Burduli NM, Balaian MM.

Abstract

The present study included 100 patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) including 68 (68%) women and 32 (32%) men. They were divided into 2 groups, with the study group comprised of 70 patients and the control one containing 30 patients. The objective of the study was to estimate the influence of low-intensity intravenous laser irradiation of the blood on the NO-producing function of vascular endothelium in the patients suffering GERD. The results of the study indicate that traditional medicamental therapy of the patients with GERD does not produce a significant improvement of plasma levels of stable nitric oxide metabolites whereas low-intensity intravenous laser irradiationof the blood results in well apparent normalization of this parameter regardless of its initial value, either high or  low.

 Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:168134. doi: 10.1155/2013/168134. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Intravenous laser blood irradiation increases efficacy of etanercept in selected subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: an innovative clinical research approach.

Chiran DA1, Litscher G, Weber M, Ailioaie LM, Ailioaie C, Litscher D.

Author information

  • 1“Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, 16 Universitatii Street, 700115 Iasi, Romania.

Abstract

This single-blind, placebo-controlled study assesses the efficacy of synergic administration of intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) and etanercept in selected subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Etanercept is a tumor necrosis factor alpha blocking agent with recognized importance in JIA. Laser radiation has immunomodulatory effects in animal and human studies. Fourteen patients (Group I) received ILBI and 9 patients (Group II) received placebo laser. ILBI was performed in addition to ongoing JIA medication, including etanercept. ILBI was administrated in 3 sets of 5 consecutive daily sessions, with a 7-week interval between every set of sessions. Evaluation was performed using ACR (American College of Rheumatology) Pediatric Criteria (ACR Pedi) at study enrollment and at 10 and 20 weeks, respectively. After 10 weeks, 85.7% of the patients in Group I fulfilled Pedi 30 criteria, compared to only 55.6% of the patients in Group II. After 20 weeks, all patients in both groups had a Pedi 30 response. In Group I, 92.8% of the subjects met the Pedi 50 response, compared to only 55.6% in the placebo group. One patient in Group I responded best, fulfilling Pedi 70 criteria. If applied synergistically, ILBI and etanercept would have an increased efficacy in promoting JIA remission.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:169249. doi: 10.1155/2013/169249. Epub 2013 Feb 11.

Intravenous laser blood irradiation, interstitial laser acupuncture, and electroacupuncture in an animal experimental setting: preliminary results from heart rate variability and electrocorticographic recordings.

He W1, Litscher G, Wang X, Jing X, Shi H, Shang H, Zhu B.

Author information

  • 1Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China ; Stronach Research Unit for Complementary and Integrative Laser Medicine, Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria.

Abstract

This is the first study to investigate intravenous (i.v.) laser blood irradiation, interstitial (i.st.) laser acupuncture, and electroacupuncture (EA) in combination with heart rate variability (HRV) and electrocorticogram. We investigated 10 male anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats under the three conditions mentioned previously in Beijing, China, and data analysis was performed in Graz, Europe. For i.v. laser stimulation in the femoral vein and i.st. laser acupuncture at Neiguan (PC6), we used a European system (Modulas needle, Schwa-Medico, Germany; 658?nm, 50?mW, continuous wave mode), and for EA at Neiguan, a Chinese system (Hanshi-100A; Nanjing Jisheng Medical Technology Company, China; 15?Hz, 1?mA). HR, HRV, and electrocorticogram were recorded using a biophysical amplifier AVB-10 (Nihon-Kohden, Japan). HR changed significantly during i.st. laser acupuncture stimulation of Neiguan in anesthetized rats. Total HRV increased insignificantly during i.v. and i.st. laser stimulation. The LF/HF ratio showed significant changes only during i.v. laser blood irradiation. Integrated cortical EEG (electrocorticogram) decreased insignificantly during EA and i.v. laser blood irradiation. Further studies concerning dosage-dependent alterations are in progress.

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Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2012 Nov-Dec;(6):17-20.

The influence of intravenous laser therapy on prostaglandin E2 and F2-alpha dynamics and the state of microcirculation in the patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

[Article in Russian]
Burduli NM, Tadtaeva DIa.

Abstract

The objective of the present work was to study the influence of low-frequency laser radiation on the levels of prostaglandins E2 and F2-alpha and characteristics of microcirculation in the patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A total of 112 patients at the age from 19 to 79 years presenting with GERD were examined. 78 of them were given the complete 10-day course of intravenous laser therapy based on a Matriks-VLOK (“Matriks”, Russia) therapeutic laser set emitting in the continuous mode at a wavelength of 0.405 mcm with the radiation power 1-11.5 mW at the output of the main lightguide. The characteristics of interest were determined before and after the treatment. It was shown thatlaser irradiation resulted in the elevation of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin levels and the improvement of parameters of microcirculation.

Ter Arkh. 2012;84(12):58-61.

Impact of laser therapy on PGE2 level, 24-hour pH-metry changes, and quality of life in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

[Article in Russian]
Burduli NM, Tadtaeva DIa.

Abstract

AIM:

To study the impact of low-intensity laser irradiation on 24-hour pH-metry parameters and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

SUBJECTS AND METHODS:

One hundred and twelve patients aged 19 to 79 years with GERD were examined. Seventy-eight patients received a 10-day course of continuous intravenous laser therapy using a Matrix VLOK laser therapy apparatus (Matrix, Russia) with a wavelength of 0.405 pm, radiation power at the exit of a main light guide 1-1.5 mW, pulse rate 80 Hz. The indicators under study were determined before and after treatment.

RESULTS:

After treatment, the intravenous laser therapy group showed a significant increase in PGE2 (1376 +/- 93 pg/ml) to the levels typical of those in healthy individuals and a significant decrease in all esophageal pH-metry parameters; the DeMeester score achieved normal values, and all quality of life (QL) indicators, except for physical function index, significantly improved (10.2 +/- 5.7; p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

The findings are suggestive of elevated PGE2 levels and improved QL during laser therapy.

Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012 Sep;153(5):754-7.

Effect of intravenous low-intensity laser irradiation of the blood on clinical and laboratory parameters of hepatocellular insufficiency.

Babaev AV1, Gogolev DE, Reiner OV, Korochkin IM, Fandeev AV, Pivovarov VY, Fedulaev YN, Drachan KM.

Author information

  • 1Department of Faculty Therapy, Faculty of Pediatrics, NI Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Abstract

Patients with hepatocellular insufficiency received a course of intravenous laser irradiation of the blood. After the treatment, a positive dynamics of clinical and biochemical indices of the major hepatic syndromes was observed: alleviation of the major clinical symptoms and significant positive changes in biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and total cholesterol).

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2012 Jan-Feb;(1):24-8.

The application of intravenous laser irradiation of the blood for the combined treatment of psoriasis.

[Article in Russian]
Shakhova AS, Kulikov AG, Korsunskaia IM.

Abstract

The objective of the present comparative study was to estimate the efficacy of the treatment of 104 patients presenting with psoriasis with the use of PUVA therapy and intravenous laser irradiation of the blood or the combination of the two methods. It was shown that the latter treatment caused a faster reduction of the inflammatory processes than the former whereas their joint application was especially efficacious in inducing regression of concomitant infiltrative events. Erythrocytes from the patients undergoing intravenous laser irradiation of the blood were characterized by the enhanced activity of antioxidative enzymes that are known to play an important role in the cellular protection from oxidants. At the same time, PUVA therapy caused no appreciable changes in the antioxidtive status. Both treatments increased the levels of antiinflammatory cytokines and decreased those ofproinflammatory ones which suggests their immunomodulatory effect that was especially pronounced in the case of combined therapy. It is concluded that the introduction of intravenous laser irradiation of the blood in the combined treatment of psoriatic patients exerts positive effect on compromised immunoregulation, stimulates the antioxidative system, and improves microcirculation.

Vestn Otorinolaringol.  2011;(1):39-40.

The application of supravascular laser irradiation of blood for the treatment of cochleovestibular disorders.

[Article in Russian]
Lapchenko AS, Kucherov AG, Levina IuV, Ivanets IV, Krasiuk AA, Kadymova MI.

Abstract

A total of 165 patients presenting with neurosensory impairement of hearing and Meniere’s disease were treated by supravascular (extracorporeal) laser irradiation of blood. The study undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment confirmed its beneficial effect in patients with acute hearing disorders. It was equally effective as regards elimination of labyrinthine hydropsis in patients presenting with Meniere’s disease. The method proved less efficacious for the management of long-standing hearing impairement and chronic loss of hearing, but it can be used to prevent the development of these conditions.

Ter Arkh. 2010;82(3):36-8.

Changes in plasma hemostatic parameters under intravascular irradiation of blood in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

[Article in Russian]

Burduli NM, Pilieva NG.

Abstract

AIM: To study the time course of changes in the activity of the protein C system and other hemostatic parameters under intravascular laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty patients aged 17 to 62 years (mean 39.5 +/- 8.4 years) with CAP were examined. A control group (n = 40) received conventional drug therapy; the study group (n = 100) had a course of ILIB in addition to conventional therapy. RESULTS: Before treatment, the patients with CAP were observed to have a lower protein C system activity and the signs of hypercoagulation that were eliminated by ILIB. CONCLUSION: ILIB is an effective method in correcting hemocoagulative disorders in patients with CAP.

Vestn Oftalmol. 2009 Sep-Oct;125(5):57-60.

Use of plasmapheresis-based extracorporeal hemocorrection in the treatment of endogenic uveitis and autoimmune eye diseases.

[Article in Russian]

Frolov AB, Grechany? MP, Chentsova OB.

The paper gives the methods of plasmapheresis-based extracorporeal exposure to blood and its components to correct hemostatic disorders. Afferent methods, as well as quantum hemotherapy methods are outlined. The immunomodulating mechanism of their action, which favors a prompter elimination of inflammation, increases ocular functions, and reduces recurrences, is revealed. The mechanisms of action of plasmapheresis as a technique used alone and in combination with laser and ultraviolet blood irradiation and indications for and contraindications to the use of various hemocorrection methods are described.

J Xray Sci Technol. 2010;18(1):47-55.

Light distribution in intravascular low level laser therapy applying mathematical simulation: a comparative study.

Li X, Cheng G, Huang N, Wang L, Liu F, Gu Y.

Department of Laser Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.

Abstract

Intravascular low level laser therapy (ILLLT) has been applied in the treatment of many diseases for about twenty years. However, much fundamental work has not been done on its dosimetry. The study was designed to compare the difference of light distribution during ILLLT between using flat end fiber and optical fiber coupled with cylindrical light diffuser. Light distribution of He-Ne laser was processed by Monte Carlo model. The laser output was 5 mW. The diameter of both optical fibers was 400 microm. Four tissue optical parameters were chosen for simulation. The results showed that optical parameters of blood are important to determine the distribution of laser energy. The highest power density could increase to over 5000 mW/cm2 using flat end fiber. And the laser energy was absorbed by the blood cells in very small area before the tip of flat end fiber. But when using optical fiber coupled with cylindrical light diffuser, the highest power density was about 100 mW/cm2. More volume of blood cells could be irradiated by laser light. In summary, optical fiber coupled with cylindrical light diffuser is superior to flat end fiber at the aspect of increasing the volume of irradiated blood and decreasing unwanted damage to blood cells during intravascular low level laser therapy.

Klin Med (Mosk). 2009;87(8):56-61.

Types of microcirculation and laser therapy in chronic pancreatitis.

[Article in Russian]

Burduli NM, Gutnova SK.

The aim of the study was to evaluate effect of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) on systemic circulation in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) in the phase of exacerbation. 65 patients aged 36-77 years were divided into study (n = 20) and control (n = 45) groups. In addition, 30 healthy subjects were examined. Patients of the study group received drug therapy combined with intravenous blood or skin laser irradiation. Controls were treated with medicinal preparations alone. CP was diagnosed based on characteristic pain syndrome, compromised secretory function of the pancreas, results of laboratory and instrumental analysis. Microcirculation was studied by laser Doppler flowmetry with a LAKK-02 apparatus (Lazma, Russia). CP patients had heterogeneous microcirculation with a significantly increased frequency of its pathologic types (spastic, hyperemic, spastic-congestive). Major characteristics of microcirculation were significantly different from those in healthy subjects. Combination of drug therapy and LILT substantially improved microcirculation regardless of its hemodynamic type.

Klin Med (Mosk). 2009;87(6):22-5.

Effect of intravenous laser blood irradiation on endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertensive disease.

[Article in Russian]

Burduli NM, Aleksandrova OM.

The aim of this work was to study effect of intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) on endothelial dysfunction in 120 patients (mean age 53.4 +/- 1.3 yr) with grade I-II hypertensive disease (HD) allocated to 2 groups. Traditional drug therapy given to patients of control group was supplemented by ILBI using a Mulat laser therapy device in the study group. Endothelial function was evaluated from the total plasma concentration of stable NOx metabolites, nitrates (NO3-), nitrites (NO2-), and Willebrand’s factor. HD patients were found to have elevated activity of the Willebrand factor and show 3 types of response of the NO generating system: (1) decreased NO synthesis, (2) lack of its changes, and (3) increased NO synthesis. NO production in HD patients negatively correlated with systolic (r = -0.59) and diastolic (r = – 0.64) arterial pressure (AP) which suggests the relationship between decreased NO production and elevated AP. Inclusion of ILBl in the therapy of HD resulted in a significant decrease of Willebrand’s factor activity and normalization of the NO level regardless of its initial value.

Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 2009 May-Jun;43(3):56-60.

Hemoaggregation dynamics in human-operatory during percutaneous laser blood irradiation.

[[Article in Russian]

Subbotina LA, Radchenko SN, Golovkina OL, Bubeev IuA.

The experiment with essentially healthy male subjects no older than 50 involved functional load testing and irradiation by a low-energy helium-neon laser according to the standard therapeutic regimen (0.2 ml/V/ 30 min/10 sessions). Biomedical evaluation of hemoaggregation was made by 30 parameters of a multifunctional diagnostic system characterizing three blood aggregation levels: rheological (biophysical), coagulolytic (biochemical) and system (mathematical). The investigation resulted in delineation of a single-vector hypodynamic transformation of biophysical and biochemical modules, i.e. decrease in the rheological and coagulative potential mediated by a moderate platelets disaggregation (24.6%) and hyperactivation of plasmin proferments in euglobulin fraction (126.76 %). Added sessions of percutaneous laser irradiation of blood were shown to induce a medium imbalance of biophysical and biochemical hemoaggregation. At the same time, low-energy laser did not modulate significantly the general functional state of human operator as the rheological and coagulative protective potential of organism remained reasonably high (88.89 and 87.5 %, respectively).

Anesth Analg. 2008 Sep;107(3):1058-63.

Pre-Irradiation of blood by gallium aluminum arsenide (830 nm) low-level laser enhances peripheral endogenous opioid analgesia in rats.

Hagiwara S, Iwasaka H, Hasegawa A, Noguchi T.

Department of Brain and Nerve Science, Anesthesiology, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1-1 Idaigaoka-Hasamamachi-Yufu City-Oita 879-5593, Japan. saku@med.oita-u.ac.jp

BACKGROUND: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been reported to relieve pain, free of side effects. However, the mechanisms underlying LLLT are not well understood. Recent studies have also demonstrated that opioid-containing immune cells migrate to inflamed sites and release beta-endorphins to inhibit pain as a mode of peripheral endogenous opioid analgesia. We investigated whether pre-irradiation of blood by LLLT enhances peripheral endogenous opioid analgesia.

METHODS: The effect of LLLT pretreatment of blood on peripheral endogenous opioid analgesia was evaluated in a rat model of inflammation. Additionally, the effect of LLLT on opioid production was also investigated in vitro in rat blood cells. The expression of the beta-endorphin precursors, proopiomelanocortin and corticotrophin releasing factor, were investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

RESULTS: LLLT pretreatment produced an analgesic effect in inflamed peripheral tissue, which was transiently antagonized by naloxone. Correspondingly, beta-endorphin precursor mRNA expression increased with LLLT, both in vivo and in vitro.

CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that that LLLT pretreatment of blood induces analgesia in rats by enhancing peripheral endogenous opioid production, in addition to previously reported mechanisms.

Ter Arkh. 2008;80(2):30-3.

Efficacy of different laser treatments in combined therapy of patients with gastroduodenal ulcer.

[Article in Russian]

Burduli IM, Gutnova SK.

Abstract

AIM: To investigate efficacy of different methods of low-intensity laser treatment (LILT) in therapy of exacerbated gastroduodenal ulcer.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 111 gastroduodenal ulcer (GDU) patients were divided into two groups: the study group (81 patients) and control group (30 patients). Patients from the study group received combined treatment with anti-ulcer drugs and LILT performed by three methods: intravenous laser radiation of blood (ILRB), epicutaneous radiation (ER) and combination ILRB+ER. Control patients received medication alone. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed by the time of ulcer defect heeling, duration of hospital stay, clinical symptoms of the disease exacerbation manifesting with three syndromes: pain, dyspepsia, asthenovegetative syndrome.

RESULTS: The shortest heeling of ulcer defect was achieved in the patients treated with ILRB+ER combination: 17.8 +/- 0.8 and 19.3 +/- 3.4 days for gastric and duodenal ulcer, respectively (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 vs control).

CONCLUSION: Combined treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer with inclusion of laser radiation (ILRB, ER, ILRB+ER) is effective in therapy of ulcer.

Ter Arkh. 2007;79(3):44-8.

Intravascular laser irradiation of blood in the treatment of patients with chronic bronchial asthma.

[Article in Russian]

Farkhutdinov UR.

AIM: To investigate action of intravascular laser blood irradiation (ILBI) on production of active oxygen forms (AOF) in patients with bronchial asthma (BA).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The trial included 59 BA patients aged 20 to 60 years (mean age 40.2 +/- 3.1 years). AOF generation in whole blood was registered with luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Basic therapy was given to 42 patients. ILBI was added to basic therapy in 17 patients.

RESULT:. CL of whole blood in BA patients depended on severity of inflammation. BA patients with intensive CL exposed to ILBI retained free radical oxidation defects and the disease symptoms. In low intensity of blood CL, ILBI activated A OF generation and raised treatment effectiveness. CONCLUSION: ILBI raises AOF production in the whole blood of BA patients. CL registration can be used for validation of ILBI administration in BA patients and control of effectiveness of laser therapy.

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2008 Aug;28(8):1400-1.

Low-energy semiconductor laser intranasal irradiation of the blood improves blood coagulation status in normal pregnancy at term.

[Article in Chinese]

Gao X, Zhi PK, Wu XJ.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tung Wah Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University, Dongguang 523110, China. E-mail: flyhighlucky@gmail.com.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of low-energy semiconductor laser intranasal irradiation of the blood on blood coagulation status in healthy pregnant women at term.

METHODS: Low-energy semiconductor laser was introduced into the nasal cavity in 126 healthy pregnant women at term and 123 healthy young unmarried women as the control group. The plasma prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen levels were examined using transmissive turbidimetry after the therapy.

RESULTS: PT, APTT and TT levels were significantly lowered, whereas fibrinogen level significantly increased in the healthy pregnant women before the laser therapy as compared with those in the control group (P<0.01). After intranasal laser therapy, these parameters were significantly improved in the healthy pregnant women (P<0.05) although there were differences from those of the control group.

CONCLUSION: Low-energy semiconductor laser intranasal irradiation of the blood can effectively improve high blood coagulation status in healthy pregnant women at term.

Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007 Aug;144(2):238-40.

Effect of laser radiation on production of reactive oxygen species in the blood of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Farkhutdinov UR, Farkhutdinov ShU.

Department of Pulmonology, Clinical Hospital No. 21, Ufa.

The effect of laser radiation on generation of reactive oxygen species in the whole blood from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was studied by in vitro recording of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Laser irradiation of the blood from patients with increased production of reactive oxygen species decreased the microbicidal potential of cells. In patients with low generation of reactive oxygen species and normal potential of cells, laser exposure increased production of O2 metabolites. Laser radiation had little effect on chemiluminescence of the blood in patients with low generation of reactive oxygen species and decreased functional activity of cells.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2007 Jul-Aug;(4):9-11.

Effect of low intensive helium-neon laser on superoxide-producing and methemoglobin-restoring activity of cytochrome b558III of rede cell membranes in experiment.

[Article in Russian]

Simonian RM, Simonian GM, Simonian MA, Sekoian ES.

It is established that low-energy He-Ne laser without changes from the side of NADPH-dependent superoxide-producing activity of b558III cytochrome isolated from erythrocytic membranes (EM) promotes b558III activity decrease in EM. The level of metHb-restoring activity increases during irradiation by He-Ne laser. The form of optical spectrum of b558III cytochrome absorption in the visible spectrum area does not undergo essential changes after laser irradiation while optical spectral index (A412/A530) is reduced a little. It is supposed that in the basis of photochemical mechanisms of He-Ne laser protector action in oxidative stress lays its ability to increase EM stability due to a decrease of superoxide-producing and an increase of metHb-restoring activity of b558III cytochrome

Klin Med (Mosk). 2007;85(7):48-50.

The dynamics of microcirculation parameters in patients with pneumonia receiving intravenous irradiation of blood as a part of complex treatment.

[Article in Russian]

Burduli NM, Pilieva NG.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the condition of the microcirculatation under the influence of low-intensity laser irradiation as a part of complex treatment of patients with pneumonia. The subjects were 62 patients with pneumonia divided into two groups. The 30 patients of the control group received only conventional medication therapy, while the 32 patients of the main group received a course of laser irradiation of blood (LIB) in addition to conventional medication. Positive dynamics in microcirculation was more prominent in the main group. In conclusion, LIB may be considered to be an effective method to correct microcirculatory disturbances in patients with pneumonia.

Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 2007;166(6):64-7.

Correction of microcirculation in patients with atherosclerotic lesions of different vessels by efferent methods.

[Article in Russian]

Andozhskaia IuS.

The state of microcirculation was studied in 35 patients with obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremity vessels (1st group) and 36 patients with extensive atherosclerosis having a combined impairment of the peripheral basin: arteries of lower extremities and coronary arteries (2nd group) treated using the method of plasmapheresis (PPh) and PPh combined with intravascular laser irradiation of blood (IVLIB). The isolated use of PPh in patients of the 1st group was established to be effective, while combination of PPh and IVLIB was necessary for the patients of the 2nd group.

Georgian Med News. 2006 Apr;(133):108-10.

Changes of blood paramagnetic centres of animals irradiated with low-intensity laser

[Article in Russian]

Kharaishvili GA, Gogeliia AI.

Therapeutic effects of lasers are based on activation of oxidative process on cellular and subcellular levels. The first photoacceptor of laser beam being mitochondria., which simultaneously represents the source of oxidation products as well as their target and thus, laser exposure can cause numerical effects: inactivation of electron chain components of mitochondria, energy metabolism inhibition, oxidation of lipids and DNA molecule. The aim of the given work is to investigate the influence of submaximal dozes of infrared (0,85 mkm) low-intensity laser on the activity of oxidative processes in laboratory mice blood, which are reflected on the state of paramagnetic centers. For this purpose the condition of blood paramagnetic centers (caeruloplazmin, Fe(3+)-transferin, Fe(2+), Mn(2+), MetHb and NO) has been studied. Results imply that irradiation of mice blood with submaximal dozes of low-intensity laser causes the activation of oxidative process, but those changes do not lead to impairment of blood antioxidant features.

Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 2006;165(4):34-7.

Intravascular laser irradiation of blood in complex treatment of obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremity vessels in elderly and senile patients.

[Article in Russian]

Iaitski? NA, Ageenko EM, Davydenko TE, Volchkov VA, Churzin OA, Zharskaia VD.

The authors describe comparative results of treatment of 60 elderly and senile patients with obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremity vessels. In 50 patients treatment with traditional medicines was combined with intravascular laser irradiation of blood, 10 patients were treated with traditional medicines only. The data obtained by questionnaires concerning the patients’ state, expert judgment of doctors in charge of the profile department, indices of instrumental examinations of regional hemodynamics (rheovasography of the lower extremity vessels), data of laboratory investigations of morphofunctional state of erythrocytes and hemorheology showed that laser irradiation of blood gave better results of treatment. Its therapeutic effect persisted during 3 months in most patients.

Used by the kind permission of the Czech Society for the Use of Laser in Medicine, www.laserpartner.org

Laser Irradiation of the Blood

Levon Gasparyan, MD, PhD, Jerevan, Armenia

Published jointly in Laser Partner and Laser World (www.laser.nu)

Abstract

 

Evaluation of the methods of intravenous a transcutaneous irradiation of blood, known especially from scientific papers of Russian and Soviet authors. The article points out positive effects of laser irradiation on strengthening of the entire immune system.

Intravenous Laser Blood Irradiation Therapy
Currently the methods of laser and non-laser (incoherent monochromic, narrow-band or broadband) light blood irradiation therapy – the methods of photo-hemotherapy – are widely applied in the treatment of different pathologies. Direct intravenous and extracorporeal (with red, UV and blue light) as well as transcutaneous (with red and infrared light) irradiation of blood are used. Unlike the treatment mechanisms of local laser therapy, the medical effects of photo-hemotherapy methods are determined by predominance of systemic healing mechanisms above the local ones, increasing the functioning efficacy of vascular, respiratory, immune, other systems and organism as a whole.

The method of HeNe intravenous laser blood irradiation (LBI) was developed in experiment and introduced in clinic in 1981 by Soviet scientists E.N. Meshalkin and V.S. Sergievskiy. Originally the method was applied in the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies. Some authors reported that the treatment possibilities of the method are very large and include the improvement of rheological characteristics of the blood and microcirculation, normalisation of parameters of hormonal, immune, reproductive and many other systems.

HeNe laser (632.8 nm) is generally used for carrying out the intravenous laser blood irradiation (IV LBI). Usual parameters of blood irradiation procedure are: output power at the end of the light-guide inserted into a vein from 1 up to 3mW, exposition 20 – 60 minutes. Procedures are conducted on a daily base, from 3 up to 10 sessions on a course of therapy.

It was shown, that IV HeNe LBI stimulates the immune response of the organism, activates erythrogenesis and improves deformability of erythrocyte membranes, has anti-hypoxic activity on tissues and general antitoxic influence on the organism at different pathological processes. IV LBI is used for its biostimulative, analgetic, antiallergic, immunocorrective, antitoxic, vasodilative, antiarrhythmic, antibacterial, antihypoxic, spasmolytic, anti-inflammatory and some other properties.

IV LBI activates nonspecific mechanisms of anti-infectious immunity. Intensifying of bactericidal activity of serum of the blood and system of the complement, reduction of the degree of C – reactive protein, level of average molecules and toxicity of plasma, increasing the content of IgA, IgM and IgG in the serum of the blood, as well as decreasing of the level of circulating immune complexes are proved. There are studies on boosting effect of IV LBI on the cellular part of immunity (N. F. Gamaleya et al., 1991). Under influence of IV LBI the phagocytic activity of macrophages markedly increases, concentration of microbes in exudate in the abdominal cavity of patients with peritonitis decreases, reduction of inflammatory exhibiting of disease, activation of microcirculation are detected.

The medical effect of IV LBI is stipulated by its immuno-corrective activity by normalisation of intercellular relationships within the subpopulation of T-lymphocytes and increasing the amount of immune cells in a blood. It elevates the function activity of B-lymphocytes, strengthens the immune response, reduces the degree of intoxication and as a result improves the general condition of patients (V. S. Sergievskiy et al., 1991).

IV LBI promotes improving the rheological properties of blood, rising fluidity and activating transport functions. That is accompanied by increasing the oxygen level, as well as decreasing the carbon dioxide partial pressure. The arterio-venous difference by oxygen is enlarged, that testifies the liquidation of a tissue hypoxia and enrichment the oxygenation. It is a sign of normalisation of tissue metabolism. Probably, the basis of activation of oxygen transport function of IV LBI is the influence on hemoglobin with transforming it in more favorable conformation state. The augmentation of oxygen level improves metabolism of the organism tissues. In addition, the laser irradiation activates the ATP synthesis and energy formation in cells (A. S. Krjuk et al., 1986). Application of IV LBI in cardiology has shown that procedures have analgetic effect, show reliable rising tolerance of patients towards physical tolerance test, elongation of the period of remission.

It was proved that IV LBI reduces aggregation ability of thrombocytes, activates fibrinolysis, which results in peripheral blood flow velocity increasing and tissues oxygenation enriching. The improvement of microcirculation and utilisation of oxygen in tissues as a result of IV LBI is intimately linked with positive influence on metabolism: higher level of oxidation of energy-carrying molecules of glucose, pyruvate, and other substances.

The improvement in microcirculation system is also stipulated by vasodilation and change in rheological properties of blood as a result of drop of its viscosity, decrease of aggregation activity of erythrocytes due to changes of their physicochemical properties, in particular rising of negative electric charge. Finally the activation of microcirculation, unblocking of capillaries and collaterals, improvement of tissue trophical activity, normalisation of a nervous excitability take place (N. N. Kapshidze et al., 1993).

IV LBI is recommended to apply before surgical operations as preparation for intervention, as well as in the postoperative stage, because the laser irradiation of blood has not only analgetic effect, but also spasmolytic and sedative activity.

IV LBI procedures on patients with chronic glomerulonephritis allow overcoming resistance towards medicament therapy (glucocorticoid, cytostatic, hypotensive and diuretic drugs).

IV LBI promotes rising of concentration of antibiotics in the focus of inflammation as a result of improvement the microcirculation in the focus of inflammation, as well as normalisation the morphology and functional activity of the affected organ as a whole.

IV LBI procedures have found broad application in obstetrics and gynecology for activation the blood flow in utero-placental and feto-placental basins, for prophylaxis of the pathologies at delivery, for influence on inflammatory processes of inner genital organs. IV LBI normalises production of gonadotropins, improves microcirculation, elevates oxygen pressure in blood and in tissues, and so accelerates the process of regeneration and reparation.

In order to explain the generalised and multifactor effects of IV LBI, its positive influence practically on all tissues and functional systems of the body, clinical effectiveness for the treatment of different diseases, some authors mentioned that the improvement of microcirculation after IV LBI is detected in all structures of central nervous system, but this improvement is most active in the hypothalamus, which has highly developed vascular system. The capillaries of a hypothalamus are remarkable for high permeability for macro-molecular proteins, which should even more amplify influence of the irradiated blood to subthalamic nuclei. So it is supposed, that IV LBI increases the functional activity of hypothalamus and all limbic system, and as a result the activation of energetic, metabolism, immune and vegetative responses, mobilization of adaptive reserves of an organism is reached.

Transcutaneous Laser Blood Irradiation Therapy

The application in clinics of the non-invasive and relatively simple method of infrared (IR) transcutaneous laser irradiation of blood becomes possible after development of suitable IR semiconductor laser diodes. For transcutaneous LBI lasers with red (630-670 nm) or near IR (800-1300 nm) irradiation band are applied. Laser light is delivered to the skin on a projection of large veins or arteries via special nozzles.

Some recent studies suggested that it is possible to achieve the medical effect similar to effect of IV HeNe LBI, without intravenous manipulations – by transcutaneous laser blood irradiation (TLBI).The procedure of TLBI has the greatest application in children’s practice. The method is founded on a relatively high permeability of the skin and hypodermic tissues for radiation of red and especially of IR spectrum. It is supposed, that the efficacy of 20 mW HeNe laser transcutaneous blood irradiation is equal to 1 mW HeNe laser intravenous blood irradiation. In the same time TLBI procedures are non-invasive and painless. Recently non-laser light sources are also applied for transcutaneous blood irradiation.

Unfortunately, there are not enough qualified works on comparing medical and biological effects of IV and transcutaneous LBI to make the final suggestions about clinical equality of these methods. Brill (1994) suggested that the effects of the laser therapy depend on the method of irradiation. He considered, that the term “transcutaneous laser blood irradiation” is disorientating, as it skips the significance in definition of bioeffect of irritation of receptors of the skin and acupuncture points, dermal cells (including mast cells), aditional elements of the vascular wall and other formations, which are subject to the irradiation. Today there are no ground to consider, that the positive therapeutic effect of laser irradiation of skin is a result of influence only of that part of energy, which penetrates the skin and is absorbed by blood and its components. With good reasons it is possible to speak about transcutaneous laser irradiation, with indication of the place of delivery of laser light.

Blue Light Blood Irradiation Therapy

Currently the methods of laser and non-laser (incoherent monochromic, narrow-band or broadband) light blood irradiation therapy – the methods of photohemotherapy – are widely applied in the treatment of different pathologies.
H. Kost et al. (1986) offered blood irradiation with incoherent narrow-band blue light for the treatment of patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertensive disease. The drop in low-density lipoproteins and cholesterol content of the blood serum was determined. Further studies proved the broad therapeutic activity of the blue light blood irradiation procedures.
In studies of medico-biological effects of extracorporeal blue light irradiation of blood V. I. Karandashov et al. (1996, 2000) detected dropping of viscosity of blood immediately after the reinfusion. The viscosity of the blood plasma also was reduced, but to less degree than viscosity of blood, and had correlation with concentration of blood proteins. All these have results in augmentation of flowability of blood and improvement of microcirculation.

The changes of viscosity of blood and hematocrit are determined by intravascular dilution of extravascular fluid with lower concentration of high molecular weight proteins. After the completing the course of irradiation the viscosity of blood was always lower than it was before the treatment. The decrease of concentration of cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoproteins and glucose was also marked. Thus, the phototherapy by blue light did not damage the blood cells, but stipulated dropping of concentration of atherogenous lipids, glucose and bilirubin. The obtained alterations had tendency to increase and stabilisation at carrying out of a course of phototherapy. At the same time studies showed that blue light does not affect the rheological properties of the blood in vitro.

The infusion of the blood irradiated with blue light had immunostimulative activity for patients with chronic asthmatic bronchitis. It was also shown that immediately after the infusion of irradiated blood all main parameters of respiratory function were improved, and the increasing of effect was detected during and after the course of treatment.

Blue light blood irradiation therapy presents very good results in the treatment of different pathologies. It looks like it combines the best properties of both UBI and LBI procedures. Probably in the near future the blue light blood irradiation therapy will be used much more actively, than today.

ROLE OF THE CIRCULATING BLOOD IN INITIATION OF THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF VISIBLE LIGHT

K.A.Samoilova Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia

The successful use in Russia of the extracorporeal and intravascular irradiation of the patient`s blood with the laser and non-laser light for the wound healing promotion, immunomodulation, pain relief, etc. suggests that development of these effect in the case of the percutaneous light application also is due to its effect on blood. Such mechanism seems quite possible, as the visible and IR light penetrating the skin at the depth of 2-4 mm reaches a network of small vessels and can affect the blood that circulates here at a low rate. Since during the laser treatment it is possible to irradiate only a small area of the surface body or wound and, correspondingly, of a very small volume of the circulating blood, it is necessary to explain how its photomodification can lead to a wide spectrum of therapeutic effects. For this purpose, we refer to the data obtained at our Laboratory in studying mechanisms of the rapidly developing functional changes induced by retransfusions of a small blood volume (1.5-2.5% of its circulating pool) irradiated extracorporally with the UV or He-Ne laser light. It has been found out that the optical radiation induces structural-functional changes and activation of blood cells, which results in that a small volume of blood acquires properties of an active preparation able to modulate the state of cells of the autologous blood and other tissues. Indeed, when the photomodified blood is added in vitro to the 10-80-fold volume of the intact autologous blood, it “translates” to it the light-induced changes that, in spite of such a pronounced dilution of blood, not only are not reduced but even are enhanced. As a result, the entire volume of the circulating blood acquires properties of an active preparation. The chief “translators” of the light effects are the irradiated mononuclear leukocytes and platelets, and whereas development of some effects (improvement of hemorheology, activation of all types of leucocytes, etc), is necessarily associated with the presence of irradiated cells, the development of other effects (first of all an enhancement of the growth promoting activity of blood) is initiated by soluble factors secreted by these cells. By now we have accumulated an evidence for that after exposure of a small area of the body to visible incoherent polarized light, immediate changes occur of the rheological, transport, gas transport, growth stimulating, immunomodulating properties of the circulating blood and that these changes develop mainly as a consequence of the effect of the transcutaneously photomodified blood.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF LOW LEVEL LASER RADITIATION EFFECTS ON HUMAN BLOOD CELLS

Siposan D, Adalbert L (Bucharest, Roumania).

Fresh blood from 40 apparently healthy individuals has been irradiated with a low level HeNe laser, using EDTA anticoagulant. Doses ranged between 0-54 J/cm2. The authors watched the relative variation to the received doses of hemoreological constants – erythrocytary and leukocytary indices, as well as the variation of some erythrocytary aggreagability indices-viscocity, BSR. Following irradiation a lowering of the erythrocytary aggreagability (viscosity), BSR, and changes of some erythrocytary and leukocytary indices have been observed. The effect of low-level laser radiation on the red cell confirms the non-resonant mechanism of this bio-stimulating radiation effect by the changes in the cell membrane, in our case the blood cells, by revitalizing the red blood cell functional capacities and by several biochemical effects on the membrane level, that are to be studied thoroughly in future studies. It is concluded that the physical-biochemical and biological effects on blood can influence the physical-chemical parameters needed for long storage of blood products as well as the quick revitalization of the erythrocytary membrane aggressed physically and biochemically, in order to perform its oxophoric function in transfusion procedures.

Probl Tuberk. 2002;(8):16-8.

Efficiency of supra-venous blood laser radiation used in the treatment of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis in adolescents.

[Article in Russian]

Rusakova LI, Dobkin VG, Ovsiankina ES.

In 19 of 40 adolescent patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis, supravenous blood laser radiation was used in the complex treatment 2-3 weeks after the initiation of chemotherapy. The use of this type of laser therapy enhanced the efficiency of the treatment, accelerated positive changes of tuberculosis by 2.5-3.5 months, as evidenced by clinical and laboratory parameters, led to a smooth course of tuberculosis to develop less pronounced residual changes in the lung.

Klin Med (Mosk). 2001;79(8):40-3.

Efficiency of laser therapy in patients with nonspecific pulmonary diseases

[Article in Russian]

Farkhutdinov UR, Farkhutdinov RR, Farkhutdinov ShU.

Generation of active oxygen forms (AOF) in whole blood was studied in 63 patients with acute pneumonia and 72 asthmatics by chemiluminescence (CL) registration. CL intensity depended on the intensity of inflammatory process. Groups of patients with high and low blood CL were distinguished. In 35 patients intravascular laser exposure of the blood (ILEB) was added to therapeutic complexes. Disorders of free radical oxidation persisted for a long time in the majority of patients with high CL of the blood, treated by ILEB; in many cases the inflammatory process acquired a protracted pattern. By contrast, in patients with low intensity of blood CL, ILEB stimulated the generation of AOF and increased the treatment efficiency. Hence, whole blood CL can serve as a criterion of ILEB prescription and can be used for monitoring the patient’s status during laser therapy.

Dynamics of lipid metabolism and peripheral blood flow rates in patients with atherosclerosis in conjunction with renal dysfunction after the course of combined laser therapy.

Kovalyova T V et al.

During an 8 year period patients with atherosclerosis and renal dysfunction have been treated with intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI). The study has demonstrated a decreased level of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides with an simultaneous increase of HDL cholesterol levels. No pharmaceuticals were given during the treatment period. The authors state that ILBI results in a stable hypolipidemic situation which prevents atherogenesis in patients with metabolic disorders, particularly in patients with renal pathologies.

Ter Arkh. 2003;75(9):86-9.

Therapeutic efficiency of a combined use of low-intensity laser radiation and actovegin in gastroduodenal ulcers with inhibited cicatrix formation.

[Article in Russian]

Vakhrushev IaM, Shkatova EIu.

AIM: To validate use of intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) combined with actovegin administration in indolent gastroduodenal ulcers.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Modern endoscopic, morphological, device, biochemical techniques and radioimmunoassay were used in examination of 92 patients with indolent gastroduodenal ulcers aged 24 to 69 years. ILBI plus actovegin was given in failure of standard medicinal therapy.

RESULTS: ILBI plus actovegin combination produced marked analgetic, anti-inflammatory and detoxication effects. Favourable trends were observed in the composition of gastric mucus, detoxication, reparative and metabolic processes in the gastroduodenal mucosa, neurohumoral regulation.

CONCLUSION: Combination of ILBI with actovegin proved highly effective in indolent gastroduodenal ulcers.

Pathophysiology. 2001 Aug;8(1):35-40.

Laser irradiation as a potential pathogenetic method for immunocorrection in rheumatoid arthritis.

Timofeyev VT, Poryadin GV, Goloviznin MV.

Departments of Internal Disease and Pathophysiology, Russian State Medical University, Moscow, Russia

We investigated the immunocorrective and clinical effect in 75 rheumatoid patients treated with intravenous laser blood irradiation. A relation between the positive immunotropic (as well as therapeutic) effect and the pre-existent immune status of each patient was revealed. A well-defined effect was found in patients with a low level of CIC and a normal count of functional-competent T-cells. ILIB provided some symptomatic but unstable relief in patients with a high level of CIC and a high functional activity of T-lymphocytes. There was no effect in patients with a high level of CIC and decreased number of lymphocytes.

Urologiia. 1999 Nov-Dec;(6):13-5.

Endovascular Helium-Neon laser irradiation of the blood in the treatment of chronic pyelonephritis

[Article in Russian]

Tsvettsikh VE, Sultanbaev VR, Berdichevski? BA, Kazeko NI, Ovchinnikov AA, Sultanbaev RA, Murychev AV.

The authors analyze the condition of free-radical oxidation and activity of antioxidant system, clinical effectiveness of He-Ne laser therapy of patients with chronic pyelonephritis. It is shown that clinical manifestation of the disease is accompanied with activation of free radical oxidation and hypoactivity of antioxidant system. Endovascular laser hemotherapy stimulates antioxidant system, activity of superoxide dismutase, in particular. A good response and immunomodulation are achieved.

Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 1999; 71(11): 65-67.

Cytological parameters of bronchoalveolar lavage in patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis exposed to laser radiation of blood.

Ananchenko V G, Khanin A G, Gostishcheva O V.

Clinicocytological evaluation of the efficacy of combined treatment of chronic obstructive bronchitis (COB) in exacerbation with application of laser radiation of blood was performed. Combined treatment with the use of He-Ne intravenous and transcutaneous radiation of blood was given to 32 patients with COB. 27 COB patients treated without blood irradiation served as control. In addition to conventional methods of examination and control of the treatment effect, cytological and bacteriological tests of BAL precipitate smears were made. Combined COB treatment with the use of laser blood radiation has an antiinflammatory action, promotes normalization of mucociliary transport, activation of phagocytosis and immune defense, cleansing of bronchial tree, reduction of obstruction effective management of exacerbations. Hospitalization decreased 3-4 days. Blood irradiation has the advantages as a noninvasive method.

AN IN VITRO STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF LOW-LEVEL LASER RADIATION ON HUMAN BLOOD

Dan G. Siposan

In the last time the study of the effects of Low-Level Laser Radiation (LLLR) on the blood is considered to be a subject of great importance in elucidating the mechanisms of action between LLLR and biologic tissues. Different methods of blood phototherapy have been developed and used in clinical purposes with benefic effects. This study investigates some in Vitro effects of LLLR on some selected rheologic indices of human blood. After establishing whether or not damaging effects could appear due to laser irradiation of the blood, we tried to find a new method for rejuvenating the blood preserved in haemonetics-type bags. Blood samples were obtained from adult regular donors (volunteers). HeNe laser and laser diodes were used as radiation source, in a wide range of wavelengths, power densities, doses and other parameters of irradiation protocol. In the first series of experiments we established that LLLR does not alter the fresh blood from healthy donors, for doses between 0 and 10 J/cm3 and power densities between 30 and 180 mW/cm3. In the second series of experiments we established that LLLR does have, in some specific conditions, a revitalizing effect on the erythrocytes in preserved blood. We concluded that laser irradiation of the preserved blood, following a selected protocol of irradiation, could be used as a new method to improve the performances of preservation: prolonging the period of storage and blood rejuvenation before transfusion.

Anesteziol Reanimatol. 1997; (4): 33-35.

The mechanisms of action of extracorporeal helium-neon laser irradiation in acute exogenous poisonings.

Nemtsev I Z; Luzhnikov E A; Lapshin V P; Gol’dfarb I S; Badalian A V.

Extracorporeal exposure to HeNe laser of 12 mW power was used in 57 patients hospitalised at the intoxication reanimation department with acute poisonings with psychotropic drugs. The clinical result was a decrease of the incidence of pneumonia in the patients with x-ray signs of venous congestion from 52% among those administered to physiochemotherapy to 24% after this treatment modality. Laser hemotherapy brought about a temporary normalization of the erythrocyte membrane permeability, which was changed biophysically by means of a diffractometer. Red cell aggregation was approximating the norm, decreasing by 20%, and platelet aggregation decreased by 17%. Analysis of the results brought as to a conclusion that He-Ne laser exposure is an effective source of singlet stimulation of molecular O2 evenly dissolved in the blood, which causes resonance oscillations of water difields. This leads to membrane depolarization, which is probably responsible for purification of polarised membranes from toxic agents fixed by them.

CHANGES IN SOME FUNCTIONAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF THE CIRCULATING HUMAN BLOOD AFTER PERCUTANEOUS APPLICATION OF VISIBLE POLARIZED LIGHT AT A THERAPEUTIC DOSE

M.F.Balljuzek, N.Yu.Romanenko, S.I.Morozova, E.A.Manova, 1K.A.Samoilova, 1A.V.Vologdina.

Center of Phototherapy and Laser Surgery of the Russian Academy of Sciences Hospital, 1Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, Russia

Three years ago, our clinics started application of a Swiss phototherapeutic device BIOPTRON that allows an exposure of a small body area to visible incoherent polarized (VIP) light, whose spectrum and power density are close to the Sun visible radiation (400-2000 nm, 95% of polarization, 12 J/cm2). To elucidate physiological mechanisms and to specify indications for this type of phototherapy,we analyzed some biochemcal parameters in 26 healthy volunteers during the course of 10 daily irradiations of a body area, 400 cm2.In the Placebo group (n=16) the irradiation was imitated and 5 exfusions of 140 ml blood for 10 days for study was performed, like in the main group. A rapid statistically significant decrease of the glucose level in 65% of VIP-exposed volunteers (on average, by 10%) has been observed in 0.5 hr after VIP-session but no significant changes in the Placebo group. Subsequently, strongly depending on the initial level, there was a decrease or an increase of this parameter in most VIP-irradiated subjects. The correlation and dispersion analysis has revealed regulatory and normalizing effect of the VIP-sessions on the glucose content. In the Placebo group, this regularity was not detected. Deep changes were in parameters of lipid metabolism: an immediate decrease of triglyceride content, (from 1.14 to 1.00 mmole/l) and its gradual, statistically significant decrease by the end of the course. The analysis indicated both a regulatory and normalizing effect of the VIP-course on the content of these atherogenic lipids The increase in b-lypoproteins’ level was observed in 24 hr as well as by the end of course in both groups. Hence, this effect was due to the hemoexfusion rather than the effect of light.A statistically significant increase of the level of anti-atherogenic lipid a-cholesterol (from 1,76 to 1.98 mmol/l), was found out at all periods of the VIP-course, whereas in the Placebo group this parameter decreased. The data obtained have allowed us to apply the VIP-therapy in 10 patients with X-syndrome. For comparison 10 other patients as well as 12 volunteers were irradiated with therapeutic doses of He-Ne laser light. A small number of examined subjects allows only preliminary conclusions. Unlike volunteers no significant decrease was revealed in the sugar and triglyceride levels, whereas b-lipoproteins’ content decreased soon after the 1st session and by the end of the course of both VIP-therapy and laser treatment (by 32%). As to a-cholesterol, it increased in patients with initially low values and decreased in subjects with high level both after a single exposure to light and by the end of course. There were no significant differences in the studied parameters between the VIP- and laser-treated volunteers.

CHANGES OF THE CONTENT OF SOME CYTOKINES AND GROWTH FACTORS IN CIRCULATING BLOOD OF VOLUNTEERS EXPOSED TO VISIBLE POLARIZED LIGHT AT A THERAPEUTIC DOSE

K.A.Samoilova, D.I.Sokolov, K.D.Obolenskaya, N.A.Zhevago

Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia

The promotion of wound healing and immunomodulation are the cardinal indications for laser therapy. Since these complex phenomena involve participation of immunomodulators and growth factors circulating in blood, it is necessary to study effects of phototherapy their level. Using an ELISA, we determined the plasma levels of Il-b, TNF-a, INF-g, Il-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF-b) in healthy volunteers (n=15-20) in 0, 0.5, and 24 hr after exposures of their back (400 cm2) to a therapeutic dose of visible incoherent polarized (VIP) light (Swiss BIOPTRON-2 device, 400-2000 nm, 95% polarization, 12 J/cm2). As a control (Placebo) group, unexposed people were similarly tested after 2 exfusions of blood for study (30-40 ml for 24 hr). There were no changes of the IL-1b level in 0.5 and 24 hr after the VIP-exposure of 17 volunteers, however, the TNF-a content in 0.5 hr changed in 85% of the subjects: a very slight increase was revealed in persons with a low initial cytokine level (50% of all tested) and a more marked decrease, in volunteers with a high initial cytokine level. The inverse dependence of the light-induced effects on the initial TNF-a levels is confirmed by a negative correlation coefficient r (-0.67). In other 22 volunteers a statistically significant increase in the INF-g level was found in 0.5 and 24 hr: its mean amount changed by 44 pg/ml (from 21 to 65 pg/ml), in some people, by 102-308 pg/ml. Meanwhile, in the Placebo group (n=7) a decrease in the INF-g content was observed, which presumably resulted from the hemoexfusion. There also were changes of the Il-10 and TGF-b levels in 78-85% of volunteers, a high dependence of these changes being found on the initial level: r=-0.96 (Il-10) and r=-0.60 (TGF-b). Indeed, in subjects with the low values of Il-10 (40% of cases) its level increased in 0.5 hr (from 9 to 49 pg/m) and, to a lesser degree, in 24 hr, while in the group with the high Il-10 content it fell markedly (from 150 to 5 pg/ml); in the Placebo group a significant increase of Il-10 was observed (from 67 to 126 pg/ml in 24 h). As to TGF-b, its content within 0.5 hr decreased almost twice in 40% of cases (from 20.4 to 11 ng/ml) and rose in the 40% of volunteers 1.5 times (from 7.9 to 11.8 ng/ml). In the Placebo group there was an elevation of the TGF-b level in 60% of the people, while a decrease, only in 27% of the tested persons (by 25%). However, in 24 hr the 2-fold fall of the TGF-b content was revealed already in 71% of the control group persons, whereas among the irradiated volunteers, it was revealed only in 40%. Thus, a single VIP-exposure of healthy people immediately increases the plasma INF-g level and produces a regulatory effect on the TNF-b, Il-10, and TGF-b content.

Zhongguo-Xiu-Fu- Chong-Jian-Wai-Ke-Za-Zhi}. 2000;14 (1); 7-9.

Effect of intravascular low level laser irradiation used in avulsion injury.

Luo-Q, Xiong-M-G, Gu-H.. Chung-kuo hsiu fu ch’ung chien wai k’o tsa chih

The aim of this study was to explore the effect of intravascular He-Ne laser irradiation on skin flap survival after orthotopic transplantation in avulsion injuries. 58 cases suffering from avulsion injuries were treated by debridement and orthotopic transplantation of the avulsed flap within 6 hours, 31 of them received intravascular He-Ne laser irradiation and routine treatment, 27 received routine treatment as control group. The survival area and quality of avulsed flaps in the experimental group were superior to that of the control group after 15 days of operation, and the hemorheological items were markedly changed at 5 days after operation. The better flap survival after orthotopic transplantation in avulsion injury can be improved by intravascular He-Ne laser irradiation, through changed superoxide dismutase activity and hemorheological items in an optimal irradiation intensity.

Ter Arkh. 1994;66(1):29-32.

[The choice of the method for intravascular laser therapy in rheumatoid arthritis].

[Article in Russian]
Zvereva KV, Gladkova ND, Grunina EA, Logunov PL.

Abstract

A randomized placebo-controlled study was made of the clinical efficacy of four different methods of intravascular laser blood irradiation (ILBI) with helium-neon laser in 150 patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As to ILBI methods used, the most remarkable clinical effect was produced by daily procedures. The positive effect of ILBI was of liminal character bearing in mind the power range examined whereas the negative effect of irradiation was dose-dependent. ILBI may cause an exacerbation of the inflammatory process in RA whatever the single dose and frequency of procedures. The best clinical effect with daily ILBI was attained in women, individuals with the presence of rheumatoid factor but with low titers thereof, and in patients with initial stages of RA and minimum inflammation activity. The efficacy of ILBI may be predicted on the basis of the patient’s clinical findings.

 

Klin Khir. 1994;(5):27-9.

The use of continuous plasmapheresis and extracorporeal laser irradiation of the blood in treating diabetic angiopathies of the lower extremities.

[Article in Ukrainian]

Podil’chak MD, Nevzhoda OA.

The plasmapheresis (PP) with the help of the PP-05 apparatus was applied in the treatment of 70 patients with the low extremities diabetic angiopathy. The optimal plasma exfusion dose is from 600 to 1100 ml. Under the PP influence the blood glucose level reduced proportionally to the excreted plasma quantity, the rheovasographic index on the low extremities increased from 0.41 +/- 0.15 to 0.64 +/- 0.6; the bloodflow velocity in the peripheral arteries of low extremities have got the 2.2-fold rise according to the dopplerography data. In comparison with a control group of patients the exarticulation conduction frequency decreased from 20 to 8, and extremities amputation–from 14 to 5.

Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 1992 Jul-Aug;149(7-8):78-80.

Intravenous laser irradiation of the blood in severe forms of chronic venous insufficiency

[Article in Russian]

Shval’b PG, Kachinski? AE, Kolobaev VI, Kataev MI.

Based on an analysis of results of treatment of 86 patients the authors have shown that the intravenous laser irradiation of blood results in hypocoagulation, lower hematocrit index. In 52 patients good results of treatment were obtained, in 26 patients results were satisfactory. No complications were noted.

The Influence of Laser Blood Photomodification on Dynamic Characteristics of Surgical Stress

 

I. E. Golub, A. N. Malov, A. V. Neupokoeva, L. V. Sorokina, and Yu. N. Vygovsky

Institute for Laser Physics, Siberian Branch of RAS, 4038, Irkutsk-33, 664033 Russia
Irkutsk State Medical University, ul. Krasnogo Vosstaniya 1, Irkutsk, 664003 Russia

Received May 8, 2002

Abstract—Investigation of laser photomodification of blood has shown the possibility to reduce the number of medicaments required for a certain level of patient’s anesthesia. The blood laser photomodification alleviates the postoperative stress reactions, what manifests as a significant decay of amplitudes of 11 biochemical blood parameters during the entire postoperative period.

Sov Med. 1989;(7):22-6.

[Intravenous laser therapy in multimodal treatment of acute pneumonia].

[Article in Russian]
Korochkin IM, Platonova TK, Kapustina GM, Belov AM, Alekseeva OG.

Abstract

Such therapy has been administered to 70 patients with acute pneumonias. 25 patients on traditional therapy have made up the reference group. The effects of laser therapy on the clinical picture, status of the coagulation system cellular and plasma factors, fibrinolysis, and on the blood stream at the site of the pneumonic involvement have been examined in the patients with acute pneumonias in single tests and after a course of treatment. Intravenous laser therapy has had a favourable effect on the clinical course of acute pneumonias, accelerating the terms of pneumonia resolution and promoting and earlier and more complete restoration of the blood stream and normalization of the hemostasis, in contrast to routinetherapy.

Eksp Onkol. 1988;10(2):60-3.

[Experimental validation and the initial experience of the use of intravenous laser irradiation of the blood in oncology].

[Article in Russian]
Gamaleia NF, Stadnik VIa, Rudykh ZM, Kosinskaia NP, Shtykhir’ SV.

Abstract

The treatment of some non-oncological and then oncological patients was undertaken on the basis of the results obtained by laser blood irradiation (a helium-neon laser, the wavelength of 0.633 micron) in the tumour-bearing mice. The method was applied to 25 patients with the cancer of cervix uteri after their radiotherapy and resulted in the stimulation of their hemopoietic and immunologic systems.

Ter Arkh. 1985;57(8):37-9.

[Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of laser therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

[Article in Russian]
Tupikin GV.

Abstract

The clinical and laboratory findings were examined of 10 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with a first applied technique of intravenous irradiation of the circulating blood with helium-neon laser combined with external irradiation of the inflamed joints. A distinct antiinflammatory and immunosuppressant effect was attained in all the RA patients. In 80% of the test subjects, the rheumatoid blood factor reduced to 1:20 titres. The treatment method did not cause any side effects or complications and shortened the time of the patients’ stay at hospital.