Laser and Needle Acupuncture-Analgesia and MAST Cells

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2009 Jun;29(6):478-83.

Relationship between laser acupuncture and the function of mast cells.

[Article in Chinese]

Cheng K, Shen XY, Ding GH, Wu F.

Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai 201203, China. cheng_ker@hotmail.com

OBJECTIVE: To observe the analgesic effects of single-and combined-laser irradiation with low-intensity applied at “Zusanli” (ST 36) in rats, and their relation to degranulation of mast cells.

METHODS: Sixty-six SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control group (Group NC), model control group (Group MC), sham irradiation group (Group SI), 10.6 microm laser irradiation group (Group 10.6 microm LI), 650 nm laser irradiation group (Group 650 nm LI) and combined (10.6 microm + 650 nm) laser irradiation group (Group CLI). Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (0.05 mL) was injected into the left ankle joints of all the rats except those in Group NC to cause acute adjuvant-induced arthritis. In treatment, laser irradiation was applied at “Zusanli” (ST 36) for 30 minutes in all the rats except those in Group NC and Group MC. The paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to radian heat was used to compare analgesic effects among the groups. By means of toluidine blue, dyed slices of local tissues of “Zusanli” (ST 36) were used to observe changes of mast cell degranulation before and after laser irradiation.

RESULTS: The pain thresholds to irradiation of the rats in Group 650 nm LI and Group CLI were significantly higher than those in Group MC and Group SI (P < 0.01), and the mast cell degranulation rate in Group 650 nm LI and Group CLI were also significantly higher than that in Group MC and Group SI (P < 0.001). The pain threshold and mast cell degranulation rate in Group 10. 6 microm LI were not significantly different from those in Group MC and Group SI. There was a linear correlation between mast cell degranulation rate and PWL with 0. 737 in coefficient (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Single 650 nm laser and combined 650 nm + 10.6 microm laser with low intensity irradiated at “Zusanli” (ST 36) in acute adjuvant rats can provide remarkable analgesic effects, and there was a positive correlation between mast cell degranulation rate and analgesic effects, which plays an important part in laser irradiation-induced analgesia.

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2007 Feb;32(1):16-9.

Relationship between the function of mast cells and acupuncture analgesia in adjuvant arthritis rats.

[Article in Chinese]

Lin J, Huang H, Ding GH, Zhang D.

Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between mast cell degranulation and acupuncture analgesia.

METHODS: A total of 58 SD male rats were randomly divided into control (n = 12), model (n = 12), needle-retaining (n = 12), electroacupuncture (EA, n = 12) and manual-acupuncture (MA, n = 10) groups. Arthritis model was established by injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (0.05 mL) into the left ankle-joint. The paw withdrawal latency (PWL) was detected with a radiant heat algesimeter. Electroacupuncture (EA, 2/100 Hz, 0.5-1.5 mA) or manual acupuncture (lifting and thrusting force being 240-280 mN, torque being 10-15 mN x mm, 3 times/s) were applied to “Zusanli” (ST 36) on the affected side for 30 min in the corresponding group. After decapitation (under anesthesia), skin tissue around the stimulated ST36 was sampled, cut into sections (5 microm), and stained with Toluidine Blue for observing the count of degranulated mast cells.

RESULTS: In comparison with control group, PWL values of model, needle-retaining, EA and MA groups decreased significantly after modeling (P < 0.01); while compared with needle-retaining group, PWL values of EA and MA group increased considerably (P < 0.01), suggesting production of analgesia. After EA and MA stimulation, degranulation of mast cells in the stimulated ST36 area appeared apparently. Compared with needle-retaining group, the degranulation ratios of mast cells in EA and MA groups were obviously higher (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Both EA and MA stimulation of “Zusanli” (ST 36) can effectively raise pain threshold, simultaneously, and enhance the degranulation ratio of mast cells in the stimulated ST36 area.

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2009 Feb;34(1):31-5, 56.

Effects of acupoint-nerve block on mast cell activity, manual acupuncture- and electroacupuncture-induced analgesia in adjuvant arthritis rats.

[Article in Chinese]

Huang H, Zhan R, Yu XJ, Zhang D, Li WM, Ding GH.

Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China. grain_hh@sina.com

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of acupoint-nerve block on manual-acupuncture (MA) and electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia and mast cells degranulation in adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats in order to analyze the underlying peripheral mechanism of MA and EA analgesia.

METHODS: A total of 80 SD rats were randomized into control, AA model (M), normal + lidocaine (NL), EA, EA-ST36 + Lidoc (L + EA), Dubi (ST 35) + Lidoc + EA-ST36 (DL + ZEA), Xiajuxu (ST 39) + Lidoc + EA-ST36 (XL+ ZEA), MA, Lidoc+ MA-ST36 (L + MA), and ST35 + Lidoc + MA-ST36 (DL + ZMA) groups, with 8 cases in each. AA model was established by injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (0.05 ml) in the rat’s right hind-paw under anesthesia. Lidoc hydrochloride (2%, 0.05 ml) was injected into ST36 or ST35 separately for blocking the local nerve. Paw withdrawal latency (pain threshold, PT) and mast cell degranulation ratios (DGR) were detected. EA (2/100 Hz, 0.5 mA, 1 mA, 1.5 mA) or MA was applied to ST36.

RESULTS: Compared with model group, PT values of EA and MA groups increased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01) and mast cell DGR of EA and MA groups were significantly higher (P<0.01). Both PT and DGR of NL group were basically not affected by ST36-Lidoc-injection in comparison with model group (P>0.05). PT values of L + EA and DL+ ZEA groups were significantly lower than those of control and EA groups (P<0.01), and comparable to those of model and NL groups (P>0.05). PT of XL + ZEA group was significantly higher than those of model and NL groups (P<0.01), and comparable to that of EA group (P>0.05). Similar situations were found in MA-related groups. Mast cell DGR of ST36 area in L + EA, DL + ZEA and XL + ZEA groups were comparable to that of EA group (P>0.05), and such was the case in MA-related groups.

CONCLUSION: After nerve block of the local and proximal acupoints rather than the distal acupoint innervated by the same nerve, the analgesic effect of both MA and EA of ST36 is obviously attenuated; but no marked influences on MA- and EA-induced mast cell degranulation are found.

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2008 Oct;33(5):310-5.

Analysis on the difference of afferent mechanism of analgesic signals from manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture of “Zusanli” (ST 36).

[Article in Chinese]

Yu XJ, Zhan R, Huang H, Ding GH.

Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

OBJECTIVE: To observe the difference of signaling afferent mechanism of acupoints analgesic effect between manual acupuncture (MA) and electroacupuncture (EA) of “Zusanli” (ST 36) in order to analyze the initiating mechanism of these two commonly used clinic acupuncture methods.

METHODS: A total of 64 SD rats were randomized into control, model, MA, EA, collagenase (type- I)-pretreatment (CP) + MA, CP + EA, disodium cromoglicate-pretreatment (DSCP) + MA and DSCP + EA groups with 8 cases in each. Arthritis model was established by intra-joint injection of complete Freunds’ agent. MA(rotation, 20 min), and EA (21 min) were applied to bilateral “Zusanli” (ST 36) respectively in different groups. Pain threshold (PT, paw withdraw latency) was detected with 336 GT PAW/TAIL STIMULATOR and degranulated mast cells were counted under microscope separately.

RESULTS: Compared with normal control group, PT values of model, MA, EA, CP + MA, CP + EA, DSCP + MA and DSCP + EA groups lowered significantly before treatment (P < 0.05). Comparison of the same one group showed that after the treatment, PT values of MA and EA groups increased considerably (P < 0.05). PT changing rates of CP + MA and DSCP + MA were significantly lower than that of MA group (P < 0.05), suggesting disappearance of MA analgesia (not EA analgesia) after lesion of collagen protein by CP in ST36 area. In comparison with control group, the degranulation ratios (DGR) of mast cells in MA and EA groups increased significantly (P < 0.05); while compared with MA and EA groups separately, DGR of the corresponding CP + MA and DSCP + MA, and CP + EA and DSCP + EA groups decreased markedly (P < 0.05), displaying an inhibition of mast cell degranulation following CP and DSCP in ST36 area.

CONCLUSION: Both MA and EA can induce analgesia and concomitant increase of DGR of mast cells. The collagen fibers may contribute to MA initiated analgesic effect while the peripheral nerve receptors are probably involved in EA analgesia in rat.