Kidney Disease

Lasers Med Sci.  2012 Nov 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Low-level laser therapy improves crescentic glomerulonephritis in rats.

Yamato M, Kaneda A, Kataoka Y.


Cellular Function Imaging Laboratory, RIKEN Center for Molecular Imaging Science, 6-7-3 Minatojima Minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047, Japan.


Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can reduce inflammation in a variety of clinical conditions, including trauma, postherpetic neuralgia, and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the effect of LLLT on internal organs has not been elucidated. The goal of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of daily external LLLT in an animal model of crescentic glomerulonephritis. Crescentic glomerulonephritis was induced in male Wister Kyoto rats by intravenous injection of antibody for glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The rats were irradiated with a low-reactive level diode laser with an infrared wavelength of 830 nm from the shaved skin surface once a day for 14 days (irradiation spot size on the skin surface, 2.27 cm(2); power intensity, 880 mW/cm(2); irradiation mode, continuous mode; irradiation time, 250 s; energy, 500 J; energy density, 220 J/cm(2)). After laser irradiation for 14 days, animals were killed, and the extent of inflammation was evaluated. Expression of gene for inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1B and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Crescent formation in glomeruli and infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes were assessed by histochemical observation. Injection of anti-GBM antibody induced severe glomerulonephritis with crescent formation. Histological observations indicated that LLLT suppressed crescent formation and infiltration of ED1+ macrophages and CD8+ lymphocytes into the glomeruli. LLLT attenuated the levels of IL-1B and TNF-a messenger RNA in the renal cortex. Externally directed LLLT suppresses the activity of rat anti-GBM crescentic glomerulonephritis in rats. LLLT has the potential to be used for direct treatment of glomerulonephritis.

Photomed Laser Surg.  2012 Nov 7. [Epub ahead of print]

Low-Level Laser Therapy Decreases Renal Interstitial Fibrosis.

Oliveira FA, Moraes AC, Paiva AP, Schinzel V, Correa-Costa M, Semedo P, Castoldi A, Cenedeze MA, Oliveira RS, Bastos MG, Câmara NO, Sanders-Pinheiro H.


1 Division of Nephrology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora , Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Brazil .


Abstract Objective: the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO).

Background data: Regardless of the etiology, CKD involves progressive widespread tissue fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and loss of kidney function. This process also occurs in kidney allograft. At present, effective therapies for this condition are lacking. We investigated the effects of LLLT on the interstitial fibrosis that occurs after experimental UUO in rats.

Methods: The occluded kidney of half of the 32 Wistar rats that underwent UUO received a single intraoperative dose of LLLT (AlGaAs laser, 780 nm, 22.5 J/cm(2), 30 mW, 0.75 W/cm(2), 30 sec on each of nine points). After 14 days, renal fibrosis was assessed by Sirius red staining under polarized light. Immunohistochemical analyses quantitated the renal tissue cells that expressed fibroblast (FSP-1) and myofibroblast (-SMA) markers. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-1 and Smad3.

Results: The UUO and LLLT animals had less fibrosis than the UUO animals, as well having decreased expression inflammatory and pro-fibrotic markers.

Conclusions: For the first time, we showed that LLLT had a protective effect regarding renal interstitial fibrosis. It is conceivable that by attenuating inflammation, LLLT can prevent tubular activation and transdifferentiation, which are the two processes that mainly drive the renal fibrosis of the UUO model.

J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010 May 3;99(2):105-10. Epub 2010 Mar 11.

Effects of low-level light therapy on streptozotocin-induced diabetic kidney.

Lim J, Sanders RA, Snyder AC, Eells JT, Henshel DS, Watkins JB 3rd.

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, 1315 East Tenth Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, United States.


Hyperglycemia causes oxidative damage in tissues prone to complications in diabetes. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) in the red to near infrared range (630-1000nm) has been shown to accelerate diabetic wound healing. To test the hypothesis that LLLT would attenuate oxidative renal damage in Type I diabetic rats, male Wistar rats were made diabetic with streptozotocin (50mg/kg, ip), and then exposed to 670nm light at a dose of 9J/cm(2) once per day for 14weeks. The activity and expression of catalase and the activity of Na K-ATPase increased in kidneys of light-treated diabetic rats, whereas the activity and expression of glutathione peroxidase and the expression of Na K-ATPase were unchanged. LLLT lowered the values of serum BUN, serum creatinine, and BUN/creatinine ratio. In addition, LLLT augmented the activity and expression of cytochrome c oxidase, a primary photoacceptor molecule in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and reduced the formation of the DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in kidney. LLLT improved renal function and antioxidant defense capabilities in the kidney of Type I diabetic rats. Thus, 670nm LLLT may be broadly applicable to the amelioration of renal complications induced by diabetes that disrupt antioxidant defense mechanisms.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2008 Jul;22(4):230-9.

Attenuation of TCDD-induced oxidative stress by 670 nm photobiomodulation in developmental chicken kidney.

Lim J, Sanders RA, Yeager RL, Millsap DS, Watkins JB 3rd, Eells JT, Henshel DS.

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent developmental teratogen inducing oxidative stress and sublethal changes in multiple organs, provokes developmental renal injuries. In this study, we investigated TCDD-induced biochemical changes and the therapeutic efficacy of photobiomodulation (670 nm; 4 J/cm(2)) on oxidative stress in chicken kidneys during development. Eggs were injected once prior to incubation with TCDD (2 pg/g or 200 pg/g) or sunflower oil vehicle control. Half of the eggs in each dose group were then treated with red light once per day through embryonic day 20 (E20). Upon hatching at E21, the kidneys were collected and assayed for glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, superoxide dimutase, and glutathione-S-transferase activities, as well as reduced glutathione and ATP levels, and lipid peroxidation. TCDD exposure alone suppressed the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, increased lipid peroxidation, and depleted available ATP. The biochemical indicators of oxidative and energy stress in the kidney were reversed by daily phototherapy, restoring ATP and glutathione contents and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities to control levels. Photobiomodulation also normalized the level of lipid peroxidation increased by TCDD exposure. The results of this study suggest that 670 nm photobiomodulation may be useful as a noninvasive treatment for renal injury resulting from chemically induced cellular oxidative and energy stress.

Urologiia. 2007 Jul-Aug;(4):20-3, 25.

[Effects of magnetolaser radiation on pathologic process in the kidneys in experimental renal colic]

[Article in Russian]

Avdoshin VP, Andriukhin MI, Lebedeva TI, Shirshov VN.

The experiments were made on 22 rabbits with induced single or recurrent renal colic. Ten animals after renal colic were exposed to magnetolaser radiation. The histological examination of renal tissue demonstrated colic-related changes both in renal body corpuscle and ductules. Parenchimal edema, parabiotic processes in epitheliocytes and even necrosis of some cells were found. In case of recurrent colic the changes were severe, much more epitheliocytes were damaged, inflammatory leucocyte infiltration appeared. Magnetolaser radiation reduces the damage, eliminates leucocyte infiltration. Lymphocytic infiltrates formed in renal interstitium after two sessions of magnetolaser therapy indicate stimulation of cell immunity. The same processes develop also in the contralateral kidney. Their activity depends on the number of colics. Therefore, magnetolaser radiation has a protective action both on the isolated organ and body as a whole.

Urologiia. 2006 May-Jun;(3):47-50.

[Influence of low intensive laser irradiation on ultrastructural changes in kidney tissue in experimental colic]

[Article in Russian]

Avdoshin VP, Andriukhin MI, Lebedeva TI, Taskinen IuI.

This investigation aimed at estimation of the influence of low-intensive laser irradiation on ultrastructural changes in renal tissue according to electronic microscopy data in case of experimental renal colic. The experiment was made on twenty rabbits with a single or recurrent colic. Ten animals after a single colic were exposed to low intensive laser therapy. Electronic microscopy showed that single renal colic is associated with marked ultrastructural changes in the proximal tubules. In recurrent colic the edema and destruction were more expressed in all nephron parts. Low intensive laser irradiation suppresses pathological processes in nephrocytes both after a single renal colic and after a recurrent renal colic; has a systemic effect on the body; stimulates compensatory processes in the contralateral kidney.

Probl Tuberk Bolezn Legk. 2003;(6):28-33.

[Combined low-intensity laser radiation in renal tuberculosis]

[Article in Russian]

Parmon EM, Borshchevski? VV, Kamyshnikov VS, Bortkevich LG.

Combined external radiation in the projection of the kidneys and intravascular laser blood radiation by applying an AZOR-2K apparatus were used in the combined treatment of 54 patients with tuberculosis of the urinary system. Analysis of the biochemical and immunological parameters of the patients’ peripheral blood before and 3 weeks and 3 months after the combined treatment provided evidence suggesting a decrease in the magnitude of lipid peroxidation, an increase in the antioxidative status, and a reduction in the level of metabolites that affect on the development of the intoxication syndrome. The clinical findings suggest that the combined treatment has a beneficial impact on the course of renal tuberculosis, as appeared as better functional indices of urinary organs.

Urologiia. 1999 Nov-Dec;(6):13-5.

Endovascular Helium-Neon laser irradiation of the blood in the treatment of chronic pyelonephritis


[Article in Russian]

Tsvettsikh VE, Sultanbaev VR, Berdichevski? BA, Kazeko NI, Ovchinnikov AA, Sultanbaev RA, Murychev AV.

The authors analyze the condition of free-radical oxidation and activity of antioxidant system, clinical effectiveness of He-Ne laser therapy of patients with chronic pyelonephritis. It is shown that clinical manifestation of the disease is accompanied with activation of free radical oxidation and hypoactivity of antioxidant system. Endovascular laser hemotherapy stimulates antioxidant system, activity of superoxide dismutase, in particular. A good response and immunomodulation are achieved.

Urol Nefrol (Mosk). 1999 Mar-Apr;(2):28-9.


Effect of low-intensity laser therapy on urinary tract function

[Article in Russian]

Kul’chavenia EV.

The paper reports the results of the study of low-intensity infrared laser radiation effects on partial kidney functions. The course of the laser radiation resulted in improved blood supply to the kidney in 57.9% of the cases. Stimulation of the secretion and urodynamics was registered in 63.1 and 79% of the cases, respectively. Positive changes were also noted in diuresis, nitrogen-excretory and concentration functions of the kidneys.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1999 Jul-Aug;(4):24-5.

The use of laser radiation and sinusoidal modulated currents in the therapy of patients with chronic calculous pyelonephritis

[Article in Russian]

Nesterov NI, Li AA, Vasil’eva MF, Slepushkina TG, Derevnina NA.

The authors present a technique of treating chronic calculous pyelonephritis with laser radiation and sinusoidal modulated currents which promotes a complete elimination of the calculus fragments in 100, 70 and 50% of the patients in the stone size 0.2-0.5 cm, 0.5-0.7 cm and > 7 cm, respectively. This combined therapy had also antiinflammatory, and immunity-stimulating effects.

Anesteziol Reanimatol. 1993 Sep-Oct;(5):49-51.


The magneto-laser effect on liver functions in the complex treatment of hepatorenal failure

[Article in Russian]

Shimanko II, Limarev VM.

Complex therapy of acute hepatorenal failure included magnetic field and laser applied to hepatic area and blood extracorporeally. In 26 patients magnetic field and laser were applied to the hepatic area. When compared to a control group of 30 patients a more prompt decrease in blood bilirubin was noted, alongside with a drop in blood fibrinogen, which enhanced a threat of profuse bleeding. There was no decrease in blood fibrinogen or an accelerated drop in bilirubin during extracorporeal application of the technique in 23 patients, as compared to a control group of 20 patients. As the technique has different effects on the liver it should be used with care and only when clinically indicated in patients with acute hepatorenal failure.

Estimation of efficiency of magnetolaserotherapy in metaphilactik of stone disease

Avdoshin V.P.,Andruchin M.I., Lahlou H.F. Russia peoples friendship university. Moscow

The cause of stones formation in kidneys are rather various, one of which is membranes distabilisation of renal tubuls and infringement of colloid system.

For an estimation ofefficacity of influence magneto-laser therapy on frequency of a stones relapse we studed 68 patients from 18 to 70 years old, after natural stone elimination within one to three months. The estimation of activity stone formation was made on the basis of a phenomenon “Shatochina-Shabolma”. 33 patients were treated with medicines and medical plants. The therapy was given according to the nature of the stone. 35 patients besides common therapy got magneto-laser therapy on a kidneys area, the number of sessions was 8-12 during course of treatment.

The results of research have shown, that in group of the patients who have received magneto-laser therapy only in 2 (5.7 %) patients in a month have come active stone formation , m 9 (25.7 %) – in 2 months, in 17 (48,6 %) – in 3 months, and in 18 (51.4 %) – active stone formation 3 months later was not revealed. At the same time in the group of control receiving common therapy, active stone formation was revealed in a month in 13 (39.4 %) patients, in 2 months – in 21 (63.6 %), and in three months – in 29 (87.9 %) and only in 4 (12.1 %) patients active stone formation was not revealed.

Thus, magneto-laserotherapy in patients with stone disease is pathogenicaly reasonable with laser radiation stabilizing influence on biomembranes, that brings about colloid systems normalization and decreasing the risk of stone formation.

Dynamics of renal function in patients with acute pyelonephritis and diabetes treated with magnitolaserotherapy

Peoples friendship University of Russia. Moscow Avdoshin V.P. Andrukhin M.I. Makarov O.V.

We studed 98 patients with acute pyelonephritis and diabetes, 62 (63,3 %) patients out of them with not complicated forms , with complicated 36 (36,7 %). The renal function was controled on the base of clinical sings, biochemical and radioimmunological data.  Renal disfunction was revealed in all patients. Reani disfiinrion of the first degree in patients with not complicated pyelonephritis was diagnosed in 36 (58%), the second degree – in 21 (34%), the third degree – in 5 (8%) patients. Rean] disfiinrion of the first degree in patients  with complicated pyelonephritis was diagnosed in 11 (30.6%),the second – in 17 (47.2 %), the third degree in 8 (22.2 %).

Patients with complicated pyelonephritis were treated after restoration of urine outflow by upper unnary tract. Kidney catheterisation was performed in 32 (88.9%) patients, trancutaneal kidney puncture – in 4 (11.1%) patients. Besides antibiotics, detoxical therepy all patients were threated with magnitolaserotherapy  useing “MILTA” apparatus.

bi patients with not complicated pyelonephritis the renal function has normalized in 21 patients (33,9 %), first degree renal disfunction was found in 26 (41,9 %), second – in 15 (24. %). The improvement of renal disfunction by one degree was revealed in 29 (46,7 %) patients, in 8 (12,9 %) by two degrees. In patients with the complicated pyelonephritis the renal function has normalized in 7 (19 %), the first degree renal disfunction – inIO patients (27,7 %), the second – in 13 (36 %),the third -in 6 (16,6 %), improvement of renal disfunction by one degree was revealed in 11 (30.6%), by two degrees – in 2 (5.6%) patients.

The results received are explained by positive medical effect of magnetolaserotherapy on inflammatory process in kidneys and renal function. Such effect is caused by improvement of microcirculation and reduction of kidneys tissue edema.


V.Soklakov, S.Bouglova, V.Finin, Ye.Belskaya Belarusian Science Research Institute of Cardiology of Mmisfay of Health, Belarusian State University, Minsk, Republic of Belarus

The influence of low energy helium-neon (HN) and infrared (IR) laser irradiation on the clinical laboratory indications of 33 patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was studied. It was shown that laser therapy must be prescribed strictly individually for each case taking into account the immune status of the organism. Laser therapy is effective only at the early stages of renal disorder. HN laser irradiation of kidneys is accompanied by activation indications of primarily humoral immunity while in case of IR laser irradiation these are activation indications of cell-bound immunity. Considering the partially auto-immune nature of kidney affection this phenomenon can be regarded as a positive factor which liquidates immunity deficit on the one hand and as a dangerous tendency of the activation of some nephron alteration mechanisms on the other. The difference in the therapeutic effectiveness of the two kinds of lasers is connected with the different penetrating power of the rays and changes in the organism’s photochemical processes which depend on the wavelength and irradiation power.

Dynamics of lipid metabolism and peripheral blood flow rates in patients with atherosclerosis in conjunction with renal dysfunction after the course of combined laser therapy.

Kovalyova T V et al.

During an 8 year period patients with atherosclerosis and renal dysfunction have been treated with intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI). The study has demonstrated a decreased level of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides with an simultaneous increase of HDL cholesterol levels. No pharmaceuticals were given during the treatment period. The authors state that ILBI results in a stable hypolipidemic situation which prevents atherogenesis in patients with metabolic disorders, particularly in patients with renal pathologies.

Urol Nefrol (Mosk). 1997 Mar-Apr;(2):12-3.


Changes in the oxygen tension of the kidney cortex in exposure to laser irradiation at different wavelengths (an experimental study)

[Article in Russian]

Safarov RM, Ianenko EK, Kazachenko AV.

Experiments with exposure of the renal cortex to different kinds of laser radiation with measurement of pO2 demonstrated that intravenous UV laser radiation inhibits tissue oxygenation. Subvascular blood exposure to infrared and intravenous one to He-Ne laser are beneficial as such radiations improve oxygenation of the renal cortex.


M.B. Lutoshkin, M.W. Tsypilev, M.A. Lutoshkina

Town Hospital #1, JSC “E.T.L.”, Vologda, Russia

The non-immune mechanisms of progressing renal failure are hemodynamic disorders and breaking of coagulation processes. The increase of spontaneous and induced hypercoagulation and depression of enzymatic link of blood fibrinolytic activity are present in the active stage of CGN. The prolonged antitrombotic treatment by anticoagulants and desagregants renders favourable stabilizing effect on preservation of residual renal function in patients with CGN. According to the results of many studies (non-nephrology) it is considered proved that the use HNL real improvement of microcirculation and decrease systematic hypertension and correction of hemocoagulation changes. 45 patients with CGN: 30 men and 15 women at the age 23-45 were examined. All the patients got the intravenous blood irradiation by the light of HNL (632,8 nm, with 2.5-3,0 mW capacity on its end, during 25-30 min). The three-year ob­servation the patients got 4-6 courses of 12-15 procedures in laser therapy (LT). The condition of microcirculation, intraglomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration was estimated by renal functional reserve (RFR). The condition of hemocoagulation processes was estimated by coagulation parameters. Before the course of treatment RFR was retained – 22,2% pts, reduced -31,2% pts, absent – 46,6% pts. After the course of treat­ment RFR was retained – 56,3% pts, reduced – 25,9% pts, ab­sent – 17,8% pts. The use of LT given authentic (p<0,05) im­provement of coagulogram parameters to 4-5 procedures, which preserved during the next 6-9 months. According to the obtained results the patients with CGN should be treated with FTNL have positive influence on intraglomerular hypertension and hemocoagulation processes in order to slow further progressing of renal process on non-immune way.

Urol Nefrol (Mosk). 1993 Mar-Apr;(2):17-20.

 The effect of magnetic and laser therapy on the course of an experimental inflammatory process in the kidneys

[Article in Russian]

Rodoman VE, Avdoshin VP, Eliseenko VI, Andriukhin MI, Rudyk IaV.

Magnetolaserotherapy (impulse power 3.6-15.2 mW, 10-50 mT) in rabbits with acute pyelonephritis resulted in significant improvement against the responses in the control group. Histologically, this appeared as exudation phase reduction, more rapid proliferation, replacement of the inflammation focus for granulation tissue.