Insulin

Transplant Proc. 2009 Dec;41(10):4313-5.

Effect of low-level laser irradiation on in vitro function of pancreatic islets.

Irani S, Mohseni Salehi Monfared SS, Akbari-Kamrani M, Ostad SN, Abdollahi M, Larijani B.

Students’ Scientific Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran 1411413137, Iran.

INTRODUCTION: Although islet isolation and transplantation techniques have improved extensively in recent years, the loss of healthy functional islets is one of the major obstacles in this enterprise. A biostimulatory effect of low-level laser irradiation has been proven on proliferation of some kinds of cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser irradiation on the function of isolated rat pancreatic islets after 24 hours of preculture. METHODS: Pancreatic islets isolated from male rats (250 to 300 g) were cultured for 24 hours in RPMI 1640 media. Groups of islets then received different energy densities (1, 3, 5 joules/cm(2) or silent) at 2 wavelengths (810 nm and 630 nm) using laser devices. Insulin concentrations in buffer media were measured as indices of islet function. RESULTS: Irradiation of incubated islets with 830 nm low-level laser significantly increased insulin secretion after a glucose challenge test (P < .05). There was a significant increase in insulin secretion after irradiation with joules/cm(2) 630 nm energy density (P < .001). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that low-level laser irradiations improved islet cell function before transplantation.

Lasers Med Sci. 2008 Apr;23(2):211-5. Epub 2007 Jul 10.

Effects of laser irradiation on the release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and receptor of IGF-1 (IGFBP3) from gingival fibroblasts.

Saygun I, Karacay S, Serdar M, Ural AU, Sencimen M, Kurtis B.

Department of Periodontology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Etlik, Ankara, 06018 Turkey. saygunisil@yahoo.com

Various studies have shown biostimulation effects of laser irradiation by producing metabolic changes within the cells. Little is known about the biological effect of laser irradiation on the oral tissues. Among the many physiological effects, it is important to recognize that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) may affect release of growth factors from fibroblasts. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the laser irradiation can enhance the release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and receptor of IGF-1 (IGFBP3) from human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). The number of all samples in the study were 30, and the samples were randomly divided into three equal groups; In the first group (single dose group), HGF were irradiated with laser energy of 685 nm, for 140 s, 2 J/cm(2) for one time, and in the second group, energy at the same dose was applied for two consecutive days (double dose group). The third group served as nonirradiated control group. Proliferation, viability, and bFGF, IGF-1, IGFBP3 analysis of control and irradiated cultures were compared with each other. Both of the irradiated groups revealed higher proliferation and viability in comparison to the control group. Comparison of the single-dose group with the control group revealed statistically significant increases in bFGF (p < 0.01) and IGF-1 (p < 0.01), but IGFBP3 increased insignificantly (p > 0.05). When the double dose group was compared with the control group, significant increases were determined in all of the parameters (p < 0.01). In the comparison of the differences between the two irradiated groups (one dose and two doses), none of the parameters displayed any statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). In both of the laser groups, LLLT increased the cell proliferation and cell viability. The results of this study showed that LLLT increased the proliferation of HGF cells and release of bFGF, IGF-1, and IGFBP3 from these cells. LLLT may play an important role in periodontal wound healing and regeneration by enhancing the production of the growth factors.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2008 Oct;26(5):433-42.

Role of nitric oxide in the visible light-induced rapid increase of human skin microcirculation at the local and systemic level: I. diabetic patients.

Samoilova KA, Zhevago NA, Menshutina MA, Grigorieva NB.

Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia. samoilova3@yandex.ru

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to reveal the effects of polychromatic visible (pVIS) or pVIS + near IR (nIR) light similar to some components of solar light on skin microcirculation and microvascular response to the vasodilatators acetylcholine (ACh) and nitroglycerine (NG), in the extremities of patients with diabetic microangiopathy. BACKGROUND DATA: The mechanisms behind light-induced increases in microcirculation as well as extracellular effects of terrestrial pVIS and pVIS + nIR light remain unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 24 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus local microcirculation was measured in the skin of the foot before and after exposure to both types of light. In another 26 patients systemic microcirculation was studied in the back of the hand before and after exposure of the lumbar-sacral area to light energy. Two different types of light therapy were performed by using two devises: Q-light, which delivers pVIP (385-750 nm) and pVIS nIR light (385-1700 nm) with a power density of 40 mW/cm2, which is similar to summer sunlight at noon in Central Europe. RESULTS: At 2 min after irradiation (12 J/cm2) of the forefoot with pVIS or pVIS + nIR light, a rise in local blood flow volume (Qas) was observed, on average by 39% and 31%, respectively. The maximal effect (+41-47%) had developed in all patients at 30 min, and it then decreased and disappeared completely 24 h post-irradiation. We obtained similar results after irradiation of the sacral area in Qas of the skin of the hand. Both types of microcirculation also increased following a second exposure to the light sources. Enhancement of microcirculation was accompanied by a decrease in the microvascular response to ACh and NG solutions administered intracutaneously by iontophoresis. CONCLUSION: Both types of irradiation stimulated microcirculation at the local and systemic levels through a mechanism of enhancement of endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation, in which nitric oxide plays a major role.

Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2007 May-Jun;135(5-6):257-63.

[Influence of low-intensity laser therapy on spatial perception threshold and electroneurographic finding in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy]

[Article in Serbian]

Peri? Z.

INTRODUCTION: Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) can be applied in cases when patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) suffer from chronic severe neuropathic pain. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to analyse influence of LILT on spatial perception threshold (SPT) and electroneurographic (ENG) parameters in patients with painful DPN. METHOD: We analysed 45 patients (25 males), average age 54.3 years (54.3 +/- 10.9), with clinical and ENG signs of painful DPN. The patients were divided into two groups: A and B. Group A consisted of 30 patients with DPN who had 30 LILT treatments over the period of 12 weeks and group B consisted of 15 patients with DPN who received only vitamin therapy per os within the same period. Prior to and after 12 weeks of treatment, the following ENG parameters were determined using surface electrodes: motor (MCV) and sensory conduction velocities (SCV) values (in m/s) of nervus (n.) peroneus (NP), n. tibialis (NT) and n. medianus (NM) and their motor distal latency (MDL) values (in ms). SPT value (score as number from 1 to 8) was determined with Tactile Circumferential Discriminator on dorsal part of foot’s big toe skin. For statistical analysis, we used Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation (sig. 2 tailed) study. RESULTS; We registered statistically significant difference between SPT (p < 0.01) values prior to (5.25 +/- 1.11) and after (4.87 +/- 0.90) LILT, as well as NMMCV (p < 0.05) values prior to (47.18 +/- 5.08) and after (49.12 +/- 3.72) LILT. Besides, we registered, only after LILT, statistically significant correlation beetwen SPT and NMDML (p < 0.01) values and also beetwen SPT and NMSCV (p < 0.05) values. The differences and correlations beetwen other analysed parameters before and after treatments were not significant (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In this study we registered significant decrease of SPT and increase of NMMCV after LILT and that indicated a favourable effect of this treatment in analysed patients with painful DPN. In our opinion these results need further investigation.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2007 Apr;25(2):78-84.

In vitro exposure of wounded diabetic fibroblast cells to a helium-neon laser at 5 and 16 J/cm2.

Houreld N, Abrahamse H.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Laser Research Unit, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, South Africa.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present investigation was to assess morphological, cellular, and molecular effects of exposing wounded diabetic fibroblast cells to He-Ne (632.8 nm) laser irradiation at two different doses. BACKGROUND DATA: An alternative treatment modality for diabetic wound healing includes low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Although it’s used in many countries and for many medical conditions, too many health care workers are unaware of this therapy, and there is still controversy surrounding its effectiveness. METHODS: Normal human skin fibroblast cells (WS1) were used to simulate a wounded diabetic model. The effect of LLLT (632.8 nm, 5 and 16 J/cm(2) once a day on two non-consecutive days) was determined by analysis of cell morphology, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and DNA damage. RESULTS: Cells exposed to 5 J/cm(2) showed a higher rate of migration than cells exposed to 16 J/cm(2), and there was complete wound closure by day 4. Exposure of WS1 cells to 5 J/cm(2) on two non-consecutive days did not induce additional cytotoxicity or genetic damage, whereas exposure to 16 J/cm(2) did. There was a significant increase in apoptosis in exposed cells as compared to unexposed cells. CONCLUSION: Based on cellular morphology, exposure to 5 J/cm(2) was stimulatory to cellular migration, whereas exposure to 16 J/cm(2) was inhibitory. Exposure to 16 J/cm(2) induced genetic damage on WS1 cells when exposed to a He-Ne laser in vitro, whereas exposure to 5 J/cm(2) did not induce any additional damage.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2005 Apr;23(2):167-71.

Green light emitting diode irradiation enhances fibroblast growth impaired by high glucose level.

Vinck EM, Cagnie BJ, Cornelissen MJ, Declercq HA, Cambier DC.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. elke.vinck@UGent.be

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The chronic metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus is an important cause of morbidity and mortality due to a series of common secondary metabolic complications, such as the development of severe, often slow healing skin lesions. In view of promoting the wound-healing process in diabetic patients, this preliminary in vitro study investigated the efficacy of green light emitting diode (LED) irradiation on fibroblast proliferation and viability under hyperglycemic circumstances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To achieve hyperglycemic circumstances, embryonic chicken fibroblasts were cultured in Hanks’ culture medium supplemented with 30 g/L glucose. LED irradiation was performed on 3 consecutive days with a probe emitting green light (570 nm) and a power output of 10 mW. Each treatment lasted 3 min, resulting in a radiation exposure of 0.1 J/cm2. RESULTS: A Mann-Whitney U test revealed a higher proliferation rate (p = 0.001) in all irradiated cultures in comparison with the controls. CONCLUSION: According to these results, the effectiveness of green LED irradiation on fibroblasts in hyperglycemic circumstances is established. Future in vivo investigation would be worthwhile to investigate whether there are equivalent positive results in diabetic patients.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2002 Jul-Aug;(4):9-11.

[Use of infrared laser therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 in health resort]

[Article in Russian]

Zin’kovskaia TM, Zavrazhnykh LA, Golubev AD.

Infrared laser therapy (300 Hz) combined with balneotherapy and patients’ education is more effective than standard sanatorium rehabilitation in patients with ischemic heart disease associated with diabetes mellitus type 2. 81.8% patients showed good response manifesting in less frequent anginal attacks, episodes of pain and painless ischemia and lower doses of antianginal drugs. Systolic and diastolic arterial pressure lowered by 18 and 10 mm Hg on the average, respectively. Multimodality rehabilitation of IHD patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus improves hemostasis, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Coronary circulation response lasted for 24 weeks

Clinical-pathogenetical aspects of combined laser therapy efficiency use in patients with diabetes mellitus, as compared with pharmacologic therapy.

T.V. Kovalyova et al

Izhevsk State Medical Academy, 2nd Municipal Out-Patient Department, Izhevsk, Russia

The use of combined laser therapy (CLT) in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is a method of choice, allowing to reduce the pharmacologic dependence or to even avoid the intake of numerous drugs.

According to our long-term observations, the use of CLT allows to decrease the doses of sugarcorrecting medications in patients with insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 1,5-2 times in the result of the first course of treatment. The application of CLT in patients with diabetic angiopathy of the lower limbs vessels corrects the disorders of macro- and microdynamics, hemorheology and immunity. The course treatment of such patients allows to preserve the stable compensation of diabetes mellitus and to stop the progression of diabetic angiopathy.

Thus, the wide application of CLT in medical practice gives the real possibility to reduce the death rates of diabetic patients of cardio-vascular diseases, coronary heart disease, severe renal pathologies, gangrene and other diabetic complications. It also improves the quality of life and capacity for work.

Dynamics of hyperlipidemia and peripheral blood flow in patients with diabetes mellitus after the course of combined laser therapy in ambulatory-polyclinic conditions.

Oprysko T V et al.

218 patients with DM were treated with laser blood irradiation. 93 patients had DM I type and 125 DM II type. A HeNe laser of 2 mW was used intravenously. In addition an infrared 890 nm laser (5-20 mW) was used for irradiation over the projections of the liver, spleen and pancreas. Treatment was given daily for a period of 8 days. Repeated sessions were given at 3 and 6 months. Sugarcorrecting medications were decreased 200%. From the first day the patients´extremities grew warmer, pain decreased and symptoms of encephalopathy decreased. Levels of total blood cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides decreased to normal values with a simultaneous increase of alhpa-LP. Sugar concentration in blood also decreased.

Used by permission of the Czech Society for the Use of Laser in Medicine, www.laserpartner.org

Ambulatory Application of Combined Laser Therapy in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Dyslipidemia

Laser Partner, 17.5.2002

T.V. Kovalyova, Out-Patient Department of the 2-nd Municipal Clinical Hospital, Izhevsk, Russia

e-mail: laser@udm.ru

Abstract

This study sought to evaluate the dynamics of lipid metabolism in blood plasma and clinical efficiency of combined laser therapy (CLT) in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Introduction

Atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by early development and spreading, that enables to speak about DM as a natural model of atherosclerosis [5]. DM and atherosclerosis are diseases with similar lipid disorders accompanied by hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-alpha-cholesterolemia [5]. It is established that under insulin-dependent DM (IDDM) hyperlipoproteinemia is secondary. It results from absolute insulin insufficiency and reduction of lipoprotein lipase activity. Hyperlipoproteinemia may be reversible provided that it is effectively treated. Besides, any dyslipoproteinemia under DM is not only a strong risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, but also is one of the leading factors in a specific microangiopathy pathogenesis [1,2]. “Usual” for DM patients hypoxia is considerably intensified under dys- and hyperlipoproteinemia, simultaneously increasing insulin defficiency and decreasing receptor sensitivity of cells. It hampers the treatment of patients and promotes the progression of diabetic microangiopathies.

Patients with NIDDM are not protected from CHD caused by qualitative and quantitative changes of blood lipoproteins (LP) [3]. Out of quantitative LP changes characteristic of NIDDM are hypertriglyceridemia and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction [6,15,16,20,25,27] on early stages of the disease [9], which are registered in 20% patients [17,22,26]. According to some investigations [4,7,14] the most common lipid disorder under NIDDM is combined hyperlipidemia, revealed in the high levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and the reduced level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). The most usual lipid disorder under NIDDM is hypertriglyceridemia, in most cases type IV, generally stipulated by the intensified very low-density lipoproteins cholesterol (VLDL-c) synthesis [5]. The HDL-c reduction is revealed both under newly established NIDDM and in patients with a prolonged diabetic record corrected by hypoglycemic preparations and insulin. Some investigations established a connection between insulin resistance and the low level of HDL-c [18]. The HDL-c concentration increases under insulin therapy [21] and weight reduction [3,13]. According to M. Laakso et al. (1988), the HDL-c reduction is of great importance for CHD morbidity and mortality prognosis in patients with NIDDM. The HDL-c reduction down to 0,9 mmol/l and less was accompanied by the fourfold risk of CHD death.

A number of investigations [10,17,22] showed that hypercholesterolemia, stipulated by the increased level of LDL-c, is revealed in 54-77% of patients. Correction of glycemia is accompanied by the reduction of TC and LDL-c level [27]. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) [24] established the interconnection between TC and heart mortality of patients with DM. The obtained results showed that the higher cholesterol level in diabetic patients caused the higher risk of heart death. However, the same cholesterol level caused the higher (3-4 times) CHD mortality in patients with DM as compared to patients without it.

The analysis of not numerous literature showed that there are still no any optimum approaches to lipid disorders treatment under DM. Moreover, dyslipidemia in diabetic patients are not practically corrected at present, that is mainly stipulated by high prices for known drugs.

Objective: This study sought to evaluate the dynamics of lipid metabolism in blood plasma and clinical efficiency of combined laser therapy (CLT) in patients with IDDM and NIDDM.

Materials and Methods

Within the last 2 years in conditions of out-patient department we observed 205 patients with NIDDM and 54 – with IDDM.

The lipidnormalizing effect of CLT in combination with antioxidant therapy (aevit 600 mg a day) we have studied in 60 individuals with NIDDM (8 men and 52 women), mean age – 57,3± 3,2 years, with the level of fasting glycemia no more than 9,0 mmol/l, HbA1c – 7,3± 0,19 and 7,27± 0,23%. The other 29 patients (with NIDDM) constituted the control group and have been treated only by sugar-reducing medications.

In all patients we conducted lipid profile investigation. We also controlled glycemia, enzymatic blood activity (ALT, AST), clinical manifestations of angiopathy and performed the conjunctival biomicroscopy. All examinations have been done prior to treatment, in 2 weeks (i.e. immediately after the treatment), in 8 days, 1, 4 and 9 months after the treatment.

Hypolipidemic action of CLT has been evaluated by the dynamics of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C and atherogenity rate (AR). Lipid profile has been investigated in venous blood serum taken in the morning hours after 12-14 hours fasting. For trials we used biochemical analyser.  TC – by Enzyme methods (CHOD-PAP), TG – UV enzyme method, HDL-c – after VLDL-c and LDL-c sedimentation by heparin in magnesium ions presence. VLDL-c and LDL-c we determined by W. Friedwald: VLDL-c = TG/5, LDL-c = TC – (HDL-c – VLDL-c). AR has been calculated by A.N. Klimov: AR = TC – HDL-c/HDL-c.

The conjunctival biomicroscopy has been conducted with the help of photoobservation slot lamp. Different parameters of microcirculation (vascular convolution, blood flow speed, arteriovenular interrelations, red blood cell aggregation, etc.) have been assessed.

We performed a staged course treatment within 9 months. Repeated courses were given in 3 and 6 months. Each course consisted of 8-10 sessions of intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) by red spectrum laser, l =0,63 mm, capacity at the light-guide end – 2 mW, exposure – 15-30 min. Simultaneously we conducted a percutaneous procedure by low intensive laser irradiation (LILI) in the near infrared spectrum, l =0,89 mm, capacity at the light-guide end – 5 – 20 mW in combination with magnetic nozzles on gastrocnemius muscle, liver, pancreas, spleen projections – frequency 150 Hz, exposure 4 min. on each zone.

Results

29 patients of the control group showed no obvious deviations of blood plasma lipids after 10-days intake of aevit (table 1). This conformity has been also registered under the subsequent courses of antioxidant therapy by aevit in 3 and 6 months.

In the main group of patients (table 2) TC level prior to treatment averaged to 8,2± 0,31 mmol/l, TG – 2,14± 0,08 mmol/l, LDL-c – 7,87± 0,30 mmol/l, HDL-c – 0,99± 0,04 mmol/l. AR made up 7,28± 0,28, LDL/HDL-c ratio – 7,94± 0,30 (with current standard being < 5,0).

Immediately after the conducted therapy no significant deviations of lipid profile have been seen. The level of TC slightly decreased to 7,98± 0,31 (p<0,01). The level of TG even slightly increased until 2,51± 0,09 (p<0,01). In a part of patients the normalization of the examined parameters was accompanied by a temporary elevation of LDL-c from 7,87± 0,30 tî 7,9± 0,30 (p<0,05), that was probably connected with the intensified biosynthesis of lipids, resulting from the improved metabolism in liver. At the same time HDL-c concentration increased from 0,99± 0,04 tî 1,14± 0,04 (p<0,05). AR decreased from 7,28± 0,28 tî 6,00± 0,23 (p<0,05), respectively. LDL/HDL-c ratio made up 6,92± 0,27 (p<0,05).

Hypolipidemic action of CLT has been distinctively revealed in 1 month after the performed treatment with the efficient reduction of TC level from 7,98± 0,31 tî 5,31± 0,20 (?< 0,01). The tendency to the reduction of TG from 2,51± 0,09 tî 1,69± 0,06 (p<0,01) and elevation of HDL-c from 1,14± 0,04 tî 1,42± 0,05 (p<0,01) has been registered. The level of LDL-c decreased from 7,90± 0,30 tî 6,63± 0,25 (?<0,05). AR lowered from 6,00± 0,23 tî 2,73± 0,10 (?<0,01). The LDL/HDL-c ratio decreased from 6,92± 0,27 tî 4,66± 0,18 (p<0,01).

In 9 months the level of TC made up 6,01± 0,23 (p<0,01), TG – 1,62± 0,06 (p<0,01), LDL-c – 5,82± 0,22 (p<0,01), HDL-c – 1,39± 0,05 (p<0,01), AR – 3,30± 0,13 (p<0,001), LDL/HDL-c – 4,18± 0,16 (p<0,01).

Within the whole staged treatment blood plasma lipids in patients of the control group remained practically unchanged.

We also established positive deviations in clinical picture. It manifested in dynamics of general clinical diabetic symptoms, diabetic macropathy of lower limbs under the following scale: pain – sensitiveness to cold – walking, conjunctival biomicroscopy changes. The state of patients, suffering from IDDM and NIDDM complicated by diabetic angiopathy of pelvic limbs, improved in the main group after 2-3 sessions of CLT. Patients showed decrease or disappearance of pain, cramps and paresthesia, “getting warmer” of limbs. No dynamics of clinical picture in the control group have been revealed. By the end of treatment, symptoms of diabetic encephalopathy and asthenia disappeared in all patients. Mood and sleep also improved.

By the end of treatment fasting glycemia in NIDDM patients decreased from 14,21± 0,85 to 11,27± 0,67. In 3 weeks the level of glycemia in this group of patients decreased at most until 6,01± 0,35. Fasting glycemia in IDDM patients even increased from 10,46± 1,46 to 11,82± 1,65. And only after the third week it reduced to 7,45± 1,04. Thus, the distinctive positive effect in respect of carbohydrate metabolism has been reached. Consequently, dosages of insulin and sugarcorrecting medications have been considerably lowered.

The results of ophthalmologic investigation demonstrated the improved retinal blood circulation in the greater part of patients of the main group with diabetic retinopathy. It has been expressed in the normalization of arteriola/venule ratio, reduction of plasmarrhage, resorption of micromacular hemorrhages and retinal edema, improvement of retinal trophism. Under the influence of CLT the blood flow speed in retinal vessels increased by 35-38%, red blood cell aggregation lowered 1,3-1,4 times. Patients of the control group did not show any improvement of retinal blood circulation.

Thus, our experience of the ambulatory application of laser therapy demonstrated the distinct effect in respect of lipid profile normalization. No side effects and complications have been registered.

Conclusions

It is safe to say that:

  1. Combined laser therapy enables to avoid the intake of hypolipidemic and lipotropic agents, as in the result of treatment we observed the prolonged effect in respect of the most important, pathogenetically significant deviations of lipid metabolism: a true increase of HDL-c in the nearest catamnesis (which preserves up to 6-10 months) and decrease of LDL-c. Simultaneously we registered a true lowering of TC, TG to the norm or its upper limits. AR reduced more than 3 times and the LDL/HDL-c ratio – twice.
  2. The application of a staged CLT in treatment of patients with IDDM and NIDDM enables to obtain a distinct, long-term, positive effect in respect of carbohydrate metabolism, simultaneously reducing insulin and sugarcorrecting medications dosage. It also results in microcirculation improvement.

Tables

Table 1: Dynamics of lipid profile (mmol/l) in patients with diabetes mellitus (M ± m)

Observation periods Group of patients TG

(0,40 – 1,53)

TC

(3,9-5,2)

LDL

(3,0-4,5)

HDL

(1,5-3,3)

AR

(2,5-3,5)

Ratio LDL/HDL

(do 5,0)

Initially I 2,11 ± 0,12 7,92 ± 0,44 7,80 ± 0,43 0,91 ± 0,05 7,70 ±0,43 8,57 ± 0,48
After therapy II (1)

II (2)

2,14 ± 0,10

2,51 ± 0,11

8,20 ± 0,38

7,98 ± 0,37

7,87 ± 0,37

7,90 ± 0,37

0,99 ± 0,04

1,14 ± 0,05

7,28 ± 0,27

6,00 ± 0,23

7,94 ± 0,30

6,92 ± 0,26

In 3 weeks II (3)

I

1,69 ± 0,07

2,10 ± 0,12

5,31 ± 0,25

7,91 ± 0,44

6,63 ± 0,31

7,79 ± 0,44

1,42 ± 0,06

0,92 ± 0,05

2,73 ± 0,10

7,59 ± 0,42

4,66 ± 0,18

8,46 ± 0,47

Changes, times p (1 – 2)

p (2 – 3)

p (1 – 3)

1,3

> 0,05

> 0,05

> 0,05

1,54

> 0,05

< 0,05

> 0,05

1,2

> 0,05

> 0,05

> 0,05

1,4

> 0,05

> 0,05

> 0,05

3,3

> 0,05

< 0,05

> 0,05

2,0

> 0,05

< 0,05

< 0,05

In 3 months:

Before therapy

In 3 weeks

II

II

I

1,72 ± 0,08

1,51 ± 0,07

2,12 ± 0,12

5,42 ± 0,25

5,27 ± 0,24

7,94 ± 0,44

6,21 ± 0,29

5,42 ± 0,25

7,84 ± 0,44

1,61 ± 0,07

1,67 ± 0,07

0,90 ± 0,05

2,37 ± 0,09

2,15 ± 0,10

7,82 ± 0,44

3,85 ± 0,18

3,24 ± 0,15

8,71 ± 0,49

In 6 months:

Before therapy

In 3 weeks

II

II

I

1,62 ± 0,07

1,54 ± 0,07

2,12 ± 0,12

6,01 ± 0,28

5,28 ± 0,24

7, 89 ± 0,44

5,82 ± 0,27

5,70 ± 0,26

7,80 ± 0,44

1,39 ± 0,06

1,42 ± 0,06

0,91 ± 0,05

3,30 ± 0,15

2,70 ± 0,12

7,67 ± 0,43

4,18 ± 0,19

4,00 ± 0,18

8,57 ± 0,48

I – Control group (n=22) – patients with DM without application of LLLT

II – Main group (n=37) – patients with DM with application of LLLT

Table 2: Rates of glycemia (M ± m)

Observation periods Group of patients Glucose, mmol/l
NIDDM IDDM
Initially I 14,43 ± 0,86 9,97 ± 1,02
After therapy II (1)

II (2)

14,21 ± 0,85

11,27 ± 0,67

10,46 ± 1,46

11,82 ± 1,65

In 3 weeks II (3)

I

6,01 ± 0,35

14,32 ± 0,86

7,45 ± 1,04

10,12 ± 1,04

p (1 – 2)

p (2 – 3)

p (1 – 3)

> 0,05

< 0,05

< 0,05

> 0,05

< 0,05

< 0,05

In 3 months:

Before therapy

In 3 weeks

II

II

I

7,98 ± 0,47

6,03 ± 0,36

14,41 ± 0,86

6,38 ± 0,89

5,72 ± 0,79

10,24 ± 1,05

In 6 months:

Before therapy

In 3 weeks

II

II

I

6,81 ± 0,40

6,02 ± 0,36

14,37 ± 0,86

5,89 ± 0,82

5,54 ± 0,77

10,31 ± 1,06

I – Control group (n=22) – patients with DM without application of LLLT –  (IDDM – 10 patients, NIDDM – 20 patients);

II – Main group (n=37) – patients with DM with application of LLLT – (IDDM – 10 patients, NIDDM – 27 patients).

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