Hypertension

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Arq Bras Cardiol. 2014 Aug; 103(2): 161–164.
doi:  10.5935/abc.20140117

PMCID: PMC4150668

Hemodynamic Effect of Laser Therapy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

Suely Tomimura,1 Bianca Passos Assumpção Silva,2 Iris Callado Sanches,3 Marina Canal,2 Fernanda Consolim-Colombo,2,4 Felipe Fernandes Conti,3 Katia De Angelis,3 and Maria Cristina Chavantes1,2,4

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biofotônica em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE)
2Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE
3Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional da UNINOVE
4Unidade de Hipertensão e Central Médica de Laser do Instituto do Coração – Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor/HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP − Brazil
Mailing Address: Suely Tomimura, Av. Santa Inês, 1.129, Alto do Mandaqui. Postal Code 02415-001, São Paulo, SP − Brazil. E-mail: rb.moc.lou@arumimotyleus

Received 2014 Mar 2; Revised 2014 Apr 28; Accepted 2014 May 19.

 

Abstract

Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is considered to be the greatest risk factor for the development of neuro-cardiovascular pathologies, thus constituting a severe Public Health issue in the world.

The Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), or laser therapy, activates components of the cellular structure, therefore converting luminous energy into photochemical energy and leading to biophysical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The LLLT promotes cellular and tissue photobiomodulation by means of changes in metabolism, leading to molecular, cellular and systemic changes.

The objective of this study was to analyze the action of low-level laser in the hemodynamic modulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats, in the long term. Animals (n = 16) were randomly divided into the Laser Group (n = 8), which received three weekly LLLT irradiations for seven weeks, and into the Sham Group (n = 8), which received three weekly simulations of laser for seven weeks, accounting for 21 applications in each group. After seven weeks, animals were cannulated by the implantation of a catheter in the left carotid artery. On the following day, the systemic arterial pressure was recorded. The Laser Group showed reduced levels of mean blood pressure, with statistically significant reduction (169 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 182 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group) and reduced levels of diastolic pressure (143 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 157 ± 3 mmHg from the Sham Group), revealing a 13 and 14 mmHg decrease, respectively. Besides, there was a concomitant important decline in heart rate (312 ± 14 bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm from the Sham Group). Therefore, laser therapy was able to produce hemodynamic changes, thus reducing pressure levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Keywords: Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), Experimental Laser Therapy, Hypertension, Hemodynamic Changes

 
Introduction

Hypertension is the causa mortis of 9.5 million people around the world, constituting a major Public Health issue.

The LLLT, or laser therapy, is able to induce a photobiological response inside the cells, activating the production of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), Nitric Oxide (NO) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS); it also changes sodium-potassium pumps and calcium channels also facilitate membrane permeability.

According to Chavantes and Tomimura, laser therapy reduces the inflammatory and edematous process, and it also changes the micro and macrovascular response, assisting in tissue repair and enabling analgesia. LLLT has proven to be an efficient, non-invasive, low-cost and safe tool.

A pioneer experimental work analyzed the acute short term actions of LLLT (only three applications) on Systemic Blood Pressure (SBP) in obese and old Wistar rats. The results indicated that LLLT was able to significantly decrease pressure levels, thus revealing cardiovascular protection, which guided the study proposed in this paper.

Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the long term effects of LLLT on the hemodynamic response of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), by assessing Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Mean Blood Pressure (MBP) and Heart Rate (HR).

Method

A prospective, controlled experimental study with 16 male SHR, which were randomly divided into two groups (n = 8): Sham Group and Laser Group. Three weekly LLLT applications were conducted on alternate days, for 7 weeks, accounting for 21 applications in the Laser group. In the Sham Group, the same protocol was implemented, however, the equipment was turned off.

The sample size and the method were based on studies found in literature, assessing hemodynamic changes and physical condition in SHR animals,.

The laser diode (MMOptics) was transcutaneously applied on the rats' tails, as demonstrated in figures 1 and ?and2,2, with the following parameters: wavelength (λ) = 780 nm, flow = 30 J/cm2, power = 40 mW, spot size = 0.04cm2 and irradiance = 1W/cm2, accounting for 90 seconds.

Figure 1

Laser diode 780 nm (MMOptics, São Carlos, SP, Brazil).

Figure 2

Place of irradiation: dorsal tail.

After seven weeks, all animals were anesthetized and cannulated by a catheter implantation in the left carotid artery. After the implantation, they were passed subcutaneously and exteriorized in the cervical dorsal region. After the animal had woken up, after 24 hours, the arterial cannula was attached to an electromagnetic transducer (Blood Pressure XDCR, Kent© Scientific, Litchfield, CT, USA) and to the pre-amplifier (Stemtech BPMT-2, Quintron Instrument© Inc, Milwaukee, USA). Signs of Blood Pressure (BP) were digitally recorded for 30 minutes, by means of a data acquisition system (CODAS, 1Kz, Dataq Instruments, Akron, OH, USA). This enabled the analysis of pressure pulse, beat by beat, with sampling frequency of 2,000 Hz per channel, for the study of SBP, DBP, MBP and HR. HR values were derived from the pulse signal of BP.

Statistical analyses

Values are presented as means ± standard deviations of means. HR, MBP, SBP and DBP were compared between the Sham and the Laser Groups. After the evaluation of distributions by the Kolgomorov normality test, the Student's t-test was used to verify the differences between normal distributions. The adopted statistical software was the GraphPad InStat. Significance level was established as p < 0.05.

Results

The Laser Group showed reduction in relation to the Sham Group in the following values: MBP (169 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 182 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group) and DBP (143 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 157 ± 3 mmHg from the Sham Group), presenting statistically significant differences. The SBP value (196 ± 5 mmHg vs. 207 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group) revealed no differences, as demonstrated in Table 1.

Table 1

Hemodynamic parameters assessed at rest in the Laser and Sham groups

With regard to HR at rest, there was significant decline in heart beats in the Laser Group (Figure 3) when compared to the Sham Group (312 ± 14* bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm in the Sham Group).

Figure 3

Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR) of Laser and Sham Groups. * p < 0.05.

Discussion

Nowadays, SAH is one of the most prevalent causa mortis. Therapeutic strategies that aim at the reduction of SBP are considered to be important.

Nowadays, LLLT is a relevant instrument in the therapeutic arsenal of numberless health fields, being able to modulate the genic expression of chemokines, to change cytokines and NO synthetic inducers. These changes may have important therapeutic relevance in vascular inflammatory processes.

The endothelial system plays an essential role to control muscular tonus, responding to dynamic changes in blood flow (shear stress). Regular physical activities are able to stimulate vasodilating factors, thus stimulating the liberation of factors such as NO and the hyperpolarizing factor derived from the endothelium, thus reducing BP levels.

In an in vitro experiment, Ricci demonstrated that endothelial cells submitted to nutritional stress effectively respond to LLLT irradiation, reorganizing actin filaments in the cytoskeleton, associated with endothelial/cellular proliferation.

A study involving the physical conditioning of SHR demonstrated pressure reduction post-physical training, which led to an important HR decline and, consequently, to decreasing cardiac output.

Our experiment observed that HR decreased relevantly in the Laser Group in relation to the Sham group (312 ± 14 bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm), which shows this is one of the possible mechanisms that are able to decrease cardiac output, and, consequently, SAH.

Sanches et al, in another experiment with oophorectomized hypertensive female rats (during menopause), used physical training for 8 weeks and demonstrated that physical exercise decreased levels of DBP, SBP, MBP and HR when compared to sedentary hypertensive female rats.

Our study showed expressive decline after LLLT irradiation in the long term, with regard to baseline SHR pressure levels. Both the levels of DBP and MBP were reduced post laser therapy (7 weeks), with statistically significant differences between groups. There are other ongoing experiments in order to understand the mechanisms involved in SAH versus LLLT.

 

Conclusion

Laser therapy applied on spontaneously hypertensive rats in the long term resulted in reduced pressure levels, therefore modulating, expressively, the hemodynamic response among hypertensive rats.

 

Footnotes

Contributed by

Author contributions

Conception and design of the research: Tomimura S, Sanches IC, Chavantes MC; Acquisition of data: Tomimura S, Silva BPA, Canal M, Conti FF; Analysis and interpretation of the data: Tomimura S, Sanches IC, Conti FF, De Angelis K, Chavantes MC; Statistical analysis: Tomimura S, Sanches IC; Writing of the manuscript: Tomimura S; Critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content: Sanches IC, Consolim-Colombo F, De Angelis K, Chavantes MC.

 

Potential Conflict of Interest

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Sources of Funding

There were no external funding sources for this study.

Study Association

This article is part of the thesis of master submitted by Suely Tomimura, from Universidade Nove de Julho.

References

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Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2014 Jul-Aug;(4):3-6.

The application of chromo- and laserotherapy for the treatment of the patients presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and concomitant arterial hypertension.

[Article in Russian]
Nikitin AV, Marks SI.

Abstract

This article gives evidence of the effectiveness of chromo- and laser therapy (using infrared and green wavelenth radiation) in combination with basal pharmacotherapy in the patients presenting with combined pathology. The analysis of the data obtained indicates that the proposed approach makes it possible to accelerate normalization of the clinical characteristics, reduce arterial pressure, improve the parameters of external respiration, and increase the duration of remission periods.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult.   2013 Nov-Dec;(6):52-8.

Modern combined technologies for the rehabilitation of the patients presenting with arterial hypertension and its prevention.

[Article in Russian]
Nikiforova TI, Lebedeva OD, Rykov SV, Belov AS.

Abstract

The present review describes the modern methods for the combined treatment and rehabilitation of the patients presenting with arterial hypertension and their influence on the key pathogenetic components of this condition in accordance with the currently accepted theories of its origin and evolution. The discovery of specific molecular and cellular mechanisms of the therapeutic action of certain factors that reflect peculiar and unique character of their inherent physical energy provided a basis for the development of highly effective methods for the treatment and prevention of arterial hypertension and rehabilitation of the patients suffering this disease. The most comprehensive clinical effect is produced by the application of scientifically sound therapeutic systems; exclusion of certain therapeutic physical factors from these modalities results in s significant reduction of their curative effectiveness.

 

 

 

 

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi.  2012 Jun;29(3):415-9.

The effects of multi-mode audio frequency pulse modulating laser together with electrical stimulation on blood pressure and hemorrheology of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

[Article in Chinese]
Gong W, Huang S, Si G, Zhang K, Chen Z.

Source

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Abstract

 

In order to explore new ways in restraining the ascending blood pressure, this paper reports a research on the effects of multi-mode audio frequency pulse modulating laser irradiation with electrical stimulation on the hemorrheology and blood pressure of the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Forty male SHR were randomly divided into four groups: Group A (control), Group B (treated with electrical stimulation on stomach 36 point (ST-36)), Group C (treated with low level pulse laser irradiation on Erjian acupuncture point), Group D (low level laser irradiation together with electrical stimulation on Erjian acupuncture point and ST-36). Laser irradiation lasted for 45 min/ day, while electrical stimulation lasted for 30 min/day. After 10 days' treatment, we compared the hemorrheology and blood pressure of the rats in the four groups. The results were that values of hemorrheology in group A and group C were obviously improved compared with those in the other two groups. Meanwhile, the blood pressures in the three treated groups (B, C, and D) were lower than in the control group after the treatment, and the value of the rats in group A was the lowest. In conclusion, the treatment the laser irradiation combined with electrodes stimulation on spontaneously hypertensive rats brought better results of hemorrheology and blood pressure in the tested rats.

Bull Exp Biol Med.  2011 May;151(1):1-4.

Effect of laser irradiation on adrenoreactivity of pial arterial vessels in rats.

 

Shuvaeva VN, Gorshkova OP, Kostylev AV, Dvoretsky DP.
Source

Department of Blood Circulation Physiology, I. P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia. vshuv@kolt.infran.ru

Abstract

Experiments on WKY and SHR rats showed that low-intensity laser irradiation reduced the tone of pial arterial vessels thereby potentiating the subsequent constrictor effect of norepinephrine. Irradiation in the red region of the spectrum produced a more pronounced effect in the blue region. The observed effects were less pronounced in SHR rats compared to normotensive WKY rats.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult.  2010 Nov-Dec;(6):12-5.

Potentials of combined non-medication therapy of arterial hypertension associated with ischemic heart disease.

[Article in Russian]

Achilov AA, Lebedeva OD, Bulatetskaia LS, Usmonzoda DU, Belov AS, Kotov SA, Achilova ShA, Rykov SV.

Abstract

The objective of the present work was to develop methods and a scientifically sound rationale for the optimization of clinical results of the treatment of patients presenting with arterial hypertension (AH) associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) using red and infra-red (IR) low-intensity laser irradiation. The study included a total of 90 patients of working age (62.2% of men and 37.8% of women) having AH associated with coronary heart disease and abnormal blood lipid spectrum. They were allocated to three groups each comprising 30 patients matched for age, sex, severity of clinical conditions, and character of maintenance medicamental therapy. Patients of group 1 were treated by intravenous blood irradiation with laser light; those in group 2 were given similar treatment in combination with external low-intensity IR laser therapy; patients of group 3 received basal medicamental therapy. The study allowed the clinical value of different variants of low-intensity laser therapy to be assessed as regards efficiency of correction of hypersympaticotony, disturbances of lipid metabolism, and refractoriness to pharmaceutical products as well as improved tolerance of physical exercises, anti-hypertensive, anti-ischemic, and anti-anginal effects, diastolic function, and quality of life as targets of the comprehensive rehabilitative program designed for patients with AH associated with coronary heart disease. An optimized therapeutic modality is proposed for patients presenting with these pathologies based on the application of the low-intensity laser irradiation regime characterized by mutual amplification and complementary action of red and infrared lights.

Klin Med (Mosk). 2009;87(6):22-5.

Effect of intravenous laser blood irradiation on endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertensive disease

[Article in Russian]

Burduli NM, Aleksandrova OM.

The aim of this work was to study effect of intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) on endothelial dysfunction in 120 patients (mean age 53.4 +/- 1.3 yr) with grade I-II hypertensive disease (HD) allocated to 2 groups. Traditional drug therapy given to patients of control group was supplemented by ILBI using a Mulat laser therapy device in the study group. Endothelial function was evaluated from the total plasma concentration of stable NOx metabolites, nitrates (NO3-), nitrites (NO2-), and Willebrand's factor. HD patients were found to have elevated activity of the Willebrand factor and show 3 types of response of the NO generating system: (1) decreased NO synthesis, (2) lack of its changes, and (3) increased NO synthesis. NO production in HD patients negatively correlated with systolic (r = -0.59) and diastolic (r = – 0.64) arterial pressure (AP) which suggests the relationship between decreased NO production and elevated AP. Inclusion of ILBl in the therapy of HD resulted in a significant decrease of Willebrand's factor activity and normalization of the NO level regardless of its initial value.

J Chiropr Med. 2008 Dec;7(4):134-9.

Effect of laser acupoint treatment on blood pressure and body weight-a pilot study.

Zhang J, Marquina N, Oxinos G, Sau A, Ng D.

Associate Director of Research, Research Department, Logan College of Chiropractic, Chesterfield, MO.

OBJECTIVE: This study reports on the effects of laser acupuncture on blood pressure, body weight, and heart rate variability by stimulating acupuncture points and meridians on college students and faculty members. METHODS: Forty-five students and faculty members from a chiropractic college were recruited in the study. All subjects signed a written informed consent before their participation in the study. This study was a randomized controlled pilot study with subjects divided into control and experimental groups. The control group received a sham low-level laser therapy treatment with no power output to the laser during their "treatment." The experimental group was treated with an activated laser. The acupuncture points used in this study were LI 4 and LI 11 for body weight and blood pressure. The treatment groups received 16 J of laser energy output for a total treatment time of 8 minutes (4 minutes for each of the 2 points). RESULTS: After using the laser treatment for 90 days (at least 12 treatments per subject), both the systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased significantly (P < .01). The mean systolic blood pressure was 129.6 +/- 14.7 mm Hg before the treatment and was reduced to 122.5 +/- 17.2 mm Hg (P < .001). The mean diastolic blood pressure was 85.6 +/- 8.0 mm Hg before treatment and was reduced to 77.2 +/- 8.7 mm Hg (P < .001). Subject's body weight was reduced in the active acupoint group, but the weight reduction did not reach a significant level. There were no significant changes in the heart rate variability. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that low-level laser treatment of acupoint resulted in lower blood pressure by stimulating the LI 11 and LI 4. No significant difference was observed in both the body weight and heart rate variability after the laser acupoint treatment.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2007 Jul-Aug;(4):12-5.

Therapeutic effects of laser therapy in patients with silent myocardial ischemia

[Article in Russian]

Krysiuk OB, Ponomarenko GN, Obrezan AG.

The technique of registration of pain and vibration sensitivity providing early diagnosis of painless ischemic heart disease is described. Basing on evident pathogenetic direction of a therapeutic action of laser therapy to different links of pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease, therapeutic effects of laser therapy in patients with painless myocardial ischemia in combination with essential hypertension were studied.

From http://www.informnauka.ru/eng/2005/2005-09-13-5_66_e.htm

GENOTYPE OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENT DETERMINES TREATMENT SUCCESS

Scientist: G.N. Ponomarenko , St. PetersburgSt. Petersburg , Chair of Balneology and Physical Therapy, Kirov Army Medical College
13.09.2005
Success of hypertension treatment depends on how well the chosen treatment mode matches the patient's genotype. Specialists of the Chair of Balneology and Physical Therapy (Kirov Army Medical College) have determined how the hypertensive patient's genotype impacts the efficiency of magnetic-laser therapy.
  For additional information: ponomarenko_G@mail.ru
  Photo, pictures:
  Keywords:
Primary hypertension is one of the most frequent diseases, the treatment of which is still a problem to contemporary medicine. The disease is determined by some genes, each of the genes may exist in several variants. Respective combination of these genes forms the so-called "risk threshold" of disease origin. The major contribution to the hypertension evolution is made by the genes of angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and some others. Their combination determines not only the risk of disease occurrence, but also a potential success of its treatment. Thus, adrenolytic drugs act differently on central hemodynamics depending on the AGT and ??? genes' polymorphism. Besides drug therapy, there exist physical treatment modes, specifically – magnetic-laser therapy. The St. Petersburg physicians have researched how its effectiveness depends on genotype.Magnetic-laser therapy effectiveness was evaluated with 101 patients with different variants of genes' polymorphism. The polymorphism itself was determined with the help of the polymerase chain reaction, having taken some venous blood from the patients. Participants to the experiment underwent a radiation treatment course consisting of ten everyday sessions, the patients being examined before and after the course. Physicians watched the blood pressure changes within 24 hours and the reaction to physical activity (the patients were placed on the bicycle ergometer). Polymorphism of different genes determines the clinical behavior and treatment effectiveness to different extent. Magnetic-laser therapy helps the majority of hypertensive patients. The ??? gene has the highest influence on the magnetic-laser therapy results. In case of one variant of polymorphism (it is called MM- polymorphism) the blood pressure falls down to the greatest degree. The researchers have also found the combinations where the effect is the lowest (this is TT-polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene). It is interesting to note that the variant of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism is the worst for success of magnetic-laser therapy but it is optimal for drug treatment of high blood-pressure.There are several genes that determine effectiveness of hypertension treatment. To clearly perceive their joint impact it is necessary to continue the research. However, it is evident already which genes determine to the largest extent the blood pressure and the value the blood pressure can be lowered in this or that way. Probably the patients will be soon undergo genetic blood test first, and then, depending on its results, the treatment will be prescribed.***
"Chemistry and Life – XXI century

Georgian Med News. 2005 Nov;(128):94-7.

Morphological changes of cardiovascular system at experimental hypertension, caused by no inhibition in condition of the laser irradiation of low-frequency

[Article in Russian]

Mirzashvili MG, Burkadze GM, Avaliani ZR.

The aim of our study was the investigation of the morphological changes of cardiovascular system, caused by NO inhibition during the laser irradiation of low-frequency. On reception of L NAME and a low-frequency laser irradiation arterial pressure during all experiment remains within the norm. At slight increase of phonic arterial pressure the laser irradiation proved to be less effective, while on a background of high arterial pressure the irradiation does not interfere the further development of hypertension and persistency. Immediately after reception of L NAME and at a low-frequency laser irradiation, the fibrosis and inflammatory changes of myocardium have not been observed; on the background of the slight enhancement of arterial pressure, laser irradiation causes insignificantly expressed fibrosis, inflammatory changes in myocardium; while on the background of increased arterial pressure a laser irradiation doesn't interfere development of fibrosis, myocardium and inflammatory changes in it. Immediately after reception L NAME and at a laser irradiation of low-frequency from the third day, a damage of cardiovascular walls, inflammatory changes, perivascular fibrosis have not been developed, while on the background of increased arterial pressure the irritation doesn't interfere the development of the above mentioned changes. Thus, the irradiation of a low-frequency laser might be recommended to prevent the development of hypertension and to avoid the complications of pre-clinical phase of hypertension. Though, the analogous recommendations are not foreseen for involvement in algorithm of the treatment of hypertension and correction of clinical evidence of the disease.
 

Metabolic determinants of efficacy of infrared laser therapy in hypertensive patients with combined pathology

[Article in Russian]

Krysiuk OB, Ponomarenko GN, Obrezan AG, Kostin NA.

By a distinct pathogenetic direction of a therapeutic action of laser therapy (LT) on different regulators of blood pressure (BP) and metabolism, 109 patients with essential hypertension (EH) and atherosclerosis and/or diabetes mellitus were studied for LT efficacy depending on metabolis disorders. LT demonstrated metabolic neutrality and unefficacy in patients with multiple marked disorders of fat metabolism and hyperglycemia. Metabolic factors determining LT efficacy comprise hypercholesterinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia. The factorial analysis points to essential factor restructuring in metabolic disorders. The obtained equation of multiple regression allows prognostication of the degree of a fall of mean BP in response to LT depending on the degree of metabolic disorders.

{Klin Med(Mosk). 2001; 79 (1): 41-44.

 

 

 

Efficiency of low-intensity laser radiation in essential hypertension.

 Velizhanina I A, Gapon L I, Shabalina M S, Kamalova N N.

.  

In a placebo-controlled study an antihypertensive activity of low- intensive laser radiation (LILR) was evaluated in 52 males with essential hypertension stage I. The placebo group consisted of 14 matched patients. LILR was used as monotherapy of 10 daily procedures. This treatment significantly lowered systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure. Moreover, diastolic arterial pressure did not rise high at submaximal bicycle exercise. Total peripheral vascular resistance also decreased. A good hypotensive effect was achieved in 90.4% cases. Thus, LILR is a highly effective treatment in essential hypertension stage I.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2005 May-Jun;(3):13-7
 

The efficiency of low-intensity laser radiation in the treatment of arterial hypertension complicated by ischemic heart disease

 [Article in Russian]
 

Shuvalova IN, Klimenko IT, Svinina NG, Tsereteli MV, Zankina VG, Miasoed FR.

The efficiency of low-intensity laser radiation (LILR) was studied in the treatment of 291 patients with arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease. Clinical grounds are given for use of LILR red and infrared rays in rehabilitation of hypertensive patients with ischemia. The rehabilitation regimens can be differentiated according to the disease severity, type of hemodynamics, state of cerebral circulation.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2001 Jul-Aug;(4):3-6.

 
Lik Sprava. 1998 Oct-Nov;(7):141-3.  

 

The effect low-intensity laser radiation in the infrared and red ranges on arterial pressure regulation in patients with borderline hypertension

 [Article in Russian]
 

Shuvalova IN, Klimenko IT, Zhukova LP, Oborin IuI.

Effectiveness was studied of low-intensity laser irradiation on regulation of arterial blood pressure (BP) in 185 patients (51 men, 134 women). The above patients were prescribed four therapeutic complexes: group I was exposed to infra-red irradiation by zones; group II–to scanning Helium-Neon laser across the portal zone and paravertebrally CIII-Th5; group III–to helium-neon laser in the area of right sinocarotid zone; group IV underwent hydrolaser shower (in red and intra-red range). Complaints were studied as were data from laboratory investigations, the condition of different bodily systems, BP level, the functional state of the cardiovascular system as per electrocardiography and rheography findings. A positive clinical effect was achieved in all the groups studied. Employment of low-intensity laser irradiation in the rehabilitation of patients with borderline hypertension during the sanatorium stage was noted to strikingly enhance the efficiency of the therapy administered. It can be prescribed to patients irrespective of their hemodynamic types. Irradiation of the right sinocarotid zone and hydrolaser therapy are indicated to patients presenting with hypo- and eukinetic types of hemodynamics and baseline sympatheticotonia.

Lik Sprava. 1997 May-Jun;(3):110-1.  

 

The effect of plasmapheresis and laser irradiation of the blood on the hemorheological and hemodynamic indices in hypertension patients

[Article in Russian]

Alizade IG, Karaeva NT.

Results are submitted of investigation designed to study effects of a combined use of plasmapheresis and laser irradiation of blood on hemorheologic and hemodynamic characteristics in 36 patients with stage II hypertensive disease. The course exposure of patients to a combined use of plasmapheresis and laser irradiation of blood led to a drop of arterial pressure in different hemodynamic groups at the expense of different parameters characterising the hemodynamic status. Thus combined use of plasmapheresis and laser irradiation of blood can be considered a promising nonmedicamentous therapeutic alternative in patients with hypertensive disease being associated with a drop of arterial blood pressure, and what is more, improvement in viscous- and elastic properties of blood as well as its hemodynamic indices.

Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1996;(8):10-2.  

 

Effects of laser therapy on psychophysiological parameters and arterial blood pressure in drivers with hypertension

[Article in Russian]

Umetov MA.

The study covered possibility to use laser therapy for correction of arterial hypertension in car and track drivers suffering from high blood pressure. Laser irradiation of infrared waves with wavelength of 0.89 micrometers appeared to have positive influence on the drivers facing arterial hypertension.

Lik Sprava. 1994 May-Jun;(5-6):29-32.  

 

Experience in the use of autotransfusions of laser-irradiated blood in treating hypertension patients

[Experience in the use of autotransfusions of laser-irradiated blood in treating hypertension patients]

[Article in Russian]

Alizade IG, Karaeva NT.

Autotransfusion of laser light-irradiated blood (5-7 sessions) was found to facilitate a steady arterial blood pressure fall by an average 24% of the initial level in patients with hypertensive disease. Drop in the arterial blood pressure following the course of autotransfusion of laser light-irradiated blood was accompanied by improvement in general condition of the patients, enhancement of the effectiveness of antihypertensive preparations, favourable shifts in immunological and haemorheological indices. After discharge from hospital beneficial clinical effect persisted for up to 4-8 months. The preliminary data obtained suggest that autotransfusion of laser light-irradiated blood may well be used as adjunct to a complex of therapeutic measures to be taken to control hypertensive disease.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1996 Mar-Apr;(2):3-5.  

The laser therapy of patients with hypertension in combination with coronary insufficiency

[Article in Russian]

Kniazeva TA, Badtieva VA, Zubkova SM.

Hypertensive patients with coronary insufficiency have received infrared (lambda = 0.85 microns) laser radiation to the skin. The treatment is shown to have antianginal, antihypertensive effects, to improve cardiac performance, myocardial contractility, to increase myocardial, coronary and aerobic reserves. This clinicofunctional efficacy is accompanied by positive shifts in lipid metabolism, lipid peroxidation activity, antioxidant defense, hemocoagulation and microcirculation.

Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1992;(4):32-3.  

 

The correction of hemodynamic disorders with low-intensity infared laser radiation in agricultural machinery operators with borderline arterial hypertension

[Article in Russian]

Mokretsov VV, Utts SR.

Data on the influence of low-intensity infrared laser on the central and peripheral hemodynamics in 76 agricultural machine operators facing transitory arterial hypertension are presented. Analysis revealed that low-intensity laser is more effective at the early stages of cardiovascular diseases. Low-intensity infrared laser exposure of reflexogenic zones can be effectively used to correct hemodynamic disorders in subjects facing transitory arterial hypertension.

A possible mechanism of the hypotensive effect of laser irradiation in patients with ischemic heart disease with arterial hypertension

 [Article in Russian]
 

Vasil'ev AP, Strel'tsova NN.

93 patients with ischemic heart disease, 44(47.3%) of them with arterial hypertension, were exposed to laser irradiation (LI). LI was accompanied with lowering of arterial pressure, more prominent in hypertensive patients. Mechanism of the hypotensive effect of laser therapy operates largely through stabilization of the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane demonstrated on the model of erythrocyte.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2001 Jan-Feb;(1):15-8.  

 

Evaluation of the effectiveness of normobaric hypoxia and low-intensity laser radiation in hypertensive patients from 24-hour arterial pressure monitoring data

 [Article in Russian]
 

Velizhanina IA, Evdokimova OV.

A randomized parallel study was performed to compare the antihypertensive effect of normobaric hypoxia and low energetic laser irradiation in 57 patients with essential hypertension stage I using 24-hour blood pressure monitoring. High hypotensive efficacy of both methods is demonstrated. A course of normobaric hypoxia decreased mean 24-h and mean daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Low energetic laser irradiation reduced mean 24-h, mean daytime and mean night systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1998 Jan-Feb;(1):9-11.  

 

The laser therapy of hypertension patients in the initial stages

 [Article in Russian]

Velizhanina IA, Shabalina MS, Gapon LI, Kamalova NN, Sergeichik OI.

The effect of low-energy laser irradiation used as monotherapy was studied in 42 patients with early essential hypertension. Hypotensive and antioxidant effects of laser therapy, its ability to decrease total peripheral resistance were more pronounced in patients with stage I hypertension.

Fiziol Zh. 2003;49(1):104-8.

 

 

 

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2003 Mar-Apr;(2):7-10.  

Laser-, ultraphono-, and acupuncture in complex treatment of patients with hypertension

[Article in Russian]

Sobetskii VV.

368 patients with hypertensive disease stage I and II were examined and treated either with laser puncture or acupuncture. Laser puncture was effective at stage I of hypertensive disease while acupuncture had a more potent hypotensive effect and can be used both in hypertensive disease stage I and II. Action on the acupuncture points and zones normalizes also parameters of the central and peripheral hemodynamics in hypertensive patients.

 
Vrach Delo. 1990 Jun;(6):19-21.  

 

The effectiveness of laser puncture in hypertension patients

[Article in Russian]

Odud AM, Potapenko PI.

A study is presented of the results of laser puncture in combination with drug treatment of patients with hypertensive disease using an association of different acupuncture points. The values of hemodynamics were evaluated by routine techniques of tetrapolar chest rheo- and kinetocardiography. The use of laser puncture allowed to reduce the dose of hypotensive drugs.

Vrach Delo. 1991 Jul;(7):34-6.

 

 

The use of laser puncture for managing hypertensive crises

[Article in Russian]

Odud AM, Potapenko PI.

The authors report efficacy of using laser puncture and pointed massage in controlling hypertensive crises in patients suffering of hypertensive disease. The arterial pressure was reduced mainly due to decrease of the peripheral resistance. This method of treatment was more effective in patients with moderate and significant hypertrophy of the left ventricle as compared with patients showing marked hypertrophy of the left ventricle.

Kardiologiia. 1991 Feb;31(2):67-70.  

 

Optimization of the treatment of patients with hypertensive disease from the rheological viewpoint

[Article in Russian]

Shabanov VA, Kitaeva ND, Levin GIa, Karsakov VV, Kostrov VA.

The efficacy of various modes of correcting rheological disorders (membrane-protective agents, laser irradiation, plasmapheresis was compared in hypertensive patients. In 30% of the patients, the conventional antihypertensive therapy was demonstrated to deteriorate hemorheological parameters, which was due to its atherogenic impact on the blood lipid spectrum. Essential phospholipids, laser irradiation, and plasmapheresis, which are supplemented to the multimodality therapy promote a significant improvement of hemorheological parameters, which makes it possible to recommend them for management of hypertensive patients with a stable (essential phospholipids), complicated (laser irradiation), and refractory (plasmapheresis) course.

Ter Arkh. 2001;73(10):70-3.  

 

Changes in blood rheological properties in patients with hypertension

[Article in Russian]

Shabanov VA, Terekhina EV, Kostrov VA.

AIM: To study hemorheology in patients with essential hypertension (EH), to improve EH treatment in terms of blood rheology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood rheology, microcirculation, lipid plasm spectrum, central hemodynamics were studied in 90 patients with mild and 83 patients with moderate or severe EH as well as 30 healthy controls before and after treatment (hypotensive drugs, essential phospholipids, intravenous laser blood radiation, plasmapheresis). RESULTS: Hemorrheological disorders (subnormal deformability of the red cells and elastoviscosity of their membranes, disk-spherical transformation and hyperaggregation of blood cells, high dynamic viscosity) correlated with the disease severity, arterial pressure and total peripheral vascular resistance. Long-term (1-1.5 years) hypotensive therapy, especially with combination of beta-blockers with diuretics, has a negative effect on blood rheology. Optimisation of EH treatment in terms of blood rheology consists in using essential phospholipids in stable hypertension, intravenous laser radiation in complicated hypertension, plasmapheresis in drug-resistant hypertension. Such an approach not only significantly improves hemorheology but also provides good clinical and hypotensive effects in 75-80% patients. CONCLUSION: Blood viscodynamics should be taken into consideration in individual treatment of hypertensive patients.

 

Effect of infrared laser irradiation on the arterial blood pressure in liquidators of the accident at the Chernobyl power plant

[Article in Ukrainian]

Korkushko OO.

Kiev Medical Institute UAPM.

Liquidators of Tchernobyl accident with discirculatory post-irradiation encephalopathy were treated with infra-red lazer irradiation together with a half doze of pharmacological agents usually used. Infra-red lazer irradiation has been shown to result in a significant reduce in the arterial pressure level, so it can be effective in correcting the disturbances in haemodynamics.

Sov Med. 1990;(3):21-3.  

 

Intravenous laser irradiation of the blood in occlusive vascular disease of the extremities

[Article in Russian]

Shval'b PG, Zakharchenko AIa, Sigaev AA, Kataev MI.

The authors analyze the results of clinical application of intravenous He-Ne laser irradiation of the blood in patients with obliterating diseases of the limb vessels. Starting from 1984, this method was employed in the treatment of 133 patients, of these 102 ones with atherosclerosis obliterans of the lower limb vessels, 17 with endarteritis obliterans, and 14 with Raynaud's syndrome. Intravenous laser therapy proved to the most effective in atherosclerotic involvement of the vessels, when positive result was achieved in 77.5 percent of patients. The length of remission was up to 6 months. the method of treatment is described.