Embryonic Growth & Survival

J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2008 Jul;22(4):230-9.

Attenuation of TCDD-induced oxidative stress by 670 nm photobiomodulation in developmental chicken kidney.

Lim J, Sanders RA, Yeager RL, Millsap DS, Watkins JB 3rd, Eells JT, Henshel DS.

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent developmental teratogen inducing oxidative stress and sublethal changes in multiple organs, provokes developmental renal injuries. In this study, we investigated TCDD-induced biochemical changes and the therapeutic efficacy of photobiomodulation (670 nm; 4 J/cm(2)) on oxidative stress in chicken kidneys during development. Eggs were injected once prior to incubation with TCDD (2 pg/g or 200 pg/g) or sunflower oil vehicle control. Half of the eggs in each dose group were then treated with red light once per day through embryonic day 20 (E20). Upon hatching at E21, the kidneys were collected and assayed for glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, superoxide dimutase, and glutathione-S-transferase activities, as well as reduced glutathione and ATP levels, and lipid peroxidation. TCDD exposure alone suppressed the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, increased lipid peroxidation, and depleted available ATP. The biochemical indicators of oxidative and energy stress in the kidney were reversed by daily phototherapy, restoring ATP and glutathione contents and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities to control levels. Photobiomodulation also normalized the level of lipid peroxidation increased by TCDD exposure. The results of this study suggest that 670 nm photobiomodulation may be useful as a noninvasive treatment for renal injury resulting from chemically induced cellular oxidative and energy stress.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2006 Jun;24(3):410-3.

Brief report: embryonic growth and hatching implications of developmental 670-nm phototherapy and dioxin co-exposure.

Yeager RL, Franzosa JA, Millsap DS, Lim J, Hansen CM, Jasevicius AV, Heise SS, Wakhungu P, Whelan HT, Eells JT, Henshel DS.

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA. rlyeager@indiana.edu

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of 670-nm light therapy on growth and hatching kinetics in chickens (Gallus gallus) exposed to dioxin. BACKGROUND DATA: Photobiomodulation has been shown to stimulate signaling pathways resulting in improved energy metabolism, antioxidant production, and cell survival. In ovo treatment with 670-nm light-emitting diode (LED) arrays improves hatching success and increases hatchling size in control chickens. Under conditions where developmental dioxin exposure is above the lethality threshold (100 ppt), phototherapy attenuates dioxin-induced early embryonic death. We hypothesized that 670-nm LED therapy would attenuate dioxin-induced developmental anomalies and increase hatching success. METHODS: Fertile chicken eggs were injected with control oil, 2, 20, or 200 ppt dioxin, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) prior to the start of incubation. Half of the eggs in each dose group were treated once per day from embryonic days 0-20 with 670-nm LED light at a fluence of 4 J/cm2. Hatchling size, organ weights, and energy parameters were compared between dose groups and LED treatment. RESULTS: LED therapy resulted in earlier pip times (small hole created 12-24 h prior to hatch), and increased hatchling size and weight in the 200 ppt dose groups. However, there appears to be an LED-oil interaction within the oil-treated controls that results in longer hatch times and decreased liver weight within the LED control dose groups in comparison to the non-LED control dose groups. CONCLUSION: Size and hatching times suggest that the hatching success and preparedness of chicks developmentally exposed to dioxin concentrations above the lethality threshold is improved by 670-nm LED treatment administered throughout the gestation period, but the relationship may be complicated by an LED-oil interaction.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006 Apr;290(4):R1062-70. Epub 2005 Nov 3.

In ovo exposure to monochromatic green light promotes skeletal muscle cell proliferation and affects myofiber growth in posthatch chicks.

Halevy O, Piestun Y, Rozenboim I, Yablonka-Reuveni Z.

Department of Animal Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel. halevyo@agri.huji.ac.il

Our previous studies demonstrated that illumination of chicken embryos with monochromatic green light results in enhanced body and muscle weight at later posthatch stages. In the present study, we investigated the cellular and molecular basis of this phenomenon. First, we showed that on day 6 posthatch, myofibers were more uniform in the in ovo illuminated group than in the control group incubated in the dark, with respect to the number of myofibers displaying diameter values within the range of the mean value. Second, we tested the hypothesis that in ovo illumination causes an increase in the number of myoblasts; this in turn can promote posthatch muscle growth. Indeed, a significant increase in the number of skeletal muscle cells isolated from pectoralis muscle was observed in the in ovo illuminated group on days 1 and 3 posthatch relative to the control group. This increased cell number was accompanied by higher expression levels of Pax7 and myogenin proteins on posthatch days 1 and 3, respectively. A parallel analysis of proliferating cells in the intact muscle further demonstrated a significant increase in the number of cells positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen in muscle from the in ovo illuminated group. Third, we demonstrated that the transition from fetal- to adult-type myoblasts, normally occurring in late stages of chicken embryogenesis, is initiated earlier in embryos subjected to in ovo green-light illumination. We suggest that the stimulatory effect of in ovo illumination on posthatch muscle growth is the result of enhanced proliferation and differentiation of adult myoblasts and myofiber synchronization.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2006 Feb;24(1):29-32.

Survivorship and mortality implications of developmental 670-nm phototherapy: dioxin co-exposure.

Yeager RL, Franzosa JA, Millsap DS, Lim J, Heise SS, Wakhungu P, Whelan HT, Eells JT, Henshel DS.

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University-Bloomington, 341 SPEA Building, 1315 East Tenth Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. rlyeager@indiana.edu

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of 670-nm light therapy on dioxin-induced embryonic mortality in chickens (Gallus gallus). BACKGROUND DATA: Developmental photobiomodulation using 670-nm light-emitting diode (LED) arrays improves hatching success and increases body size in hatchling chickens. Photobiomodulation also stimulates signaling pathways resulting in improved energy metabolism, antioxidant production and cell survival. Dioxin causes embryonic mortality, including increases in the frequency of chicken embryos that pip but can’t go to hatch. We hypothesized that 670-nm LED therapy would attenuate dioxin-induced embryo mortality. METHODS: Fertile chicken eggs were injected with control or 2, 20, or 200 ppt 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin) prior to the start of incubation. Half of the eggs in each dose group were treated once per day from embryonic days 0-20 with 670-nm LED light at a fluence of 4 J/cm(2). In ovo survival and hatching success were compared between dose groups and LED treatment. RESULTS: LED therapy decreased the embryonic mortality rate by 41%, resulting in increased embryonic survival and improved hatching success in eggs exposed to 200 ppt dioxin. However, at sub-lethal dioxin concentrations and in oil-treated controls, LED therapy slightly increased mortality. CONCLUSION: Overall survivorship and hatching success of chicks developmentally exposed to dioxin concentrations above the lethality threshold (>100 ppt TCDD) is improved by 670-nm LED treatment administered throughout the gestation period, but the relationship may be complicated by an LED-oil interaction.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2005 Jun;23(3):268-72.

Effects of 670-nm phototherapy on development.

Yeager RL, Franzosa JA, Millsap DS, Angell-Yeager JL, Heise SS, Wakhungu P, Lim J, Whelan HT, Eells JT, Henshel DS.

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. rlyeager@indiana.edu

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to assess the survival and hatching success of chickens (Gallus gallus) exposed in ovo to far-red (670-nm) LED therapy. BACKGROUND DATA: Photobiomodulation by light in the red to near-infrared range (630-1000 nm) using low-energy lasers or light-emitting diode (LED) arrays has been shown to accelerate wound healing and improve recovery from ischemic injury. The mechanism of photobiomodulation at the cellular level has been ascribed to the activation of mitochondrial respiratory chain components resulting in initiation of a signaling cascade that promotes cellular proliferation and cytoprotecton. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fertile chicken eggs were treated once per day from embryonic days 0-20 with 670-nm LED light at a fluence of 4 J/cm2. In ovo survival and death were monitored by daily candling (after Day 4). RESULTS: We observed a substantial decrease in overall and third-week mortality rates in the light-treated chickens. Overall, there was approximately a 41.5% decrease in mortality rate in the light-treated chickens (NL: 20%; L: 11.8%). During the third week of development, there was a 68.8% decrease in the mortality rate in light-treated chickens (NL: 20%; L: 6.25%). In addition, body weight, crown-rump length, and liver weight increased as a result of the 670-nm phototherapy. Light-treated chickens pipped (broke shell) earlier and had a shorter duration between pip and hatch. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that 670-nm phototherapy by itself does not adversely affect developing embryos and may improve the hatching survival rate.

Poult Sci. 2004 Aug;83(8):1413-9.

Monochromatic light stimuli during embryogenesis enhance embryo development and posthatch growth.

Rozenboim I, Piestun Y, Mobarkey N, Barak M, Hoyzman A, Halevy O.

Department of Animal Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences, Rehovot 76100, Israel. rozenboi@agri.huji.ac.il

Photostimulation with green light accelerated BW and muscle development of broilers. In experiment 1, temperature sensors were inserted into 50 broiler eggs. The eggs were placed under 5 green light-emitting diode (LED) lamps at an intensity of 0.1 W/m2 at eggshell level for 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min (n = 10). Egg temperatures were recorded continuously. A high correlation was found between lighting period and egg temperature elevation, and an intermittent light regimen of 15 min on and 15 min off was found to eliminate light-induced egg overheating. In experiment 2, the effect of in ovo green light photostimulation on embryonic development was studied. Five hundred fertile eggs were divided into 2 groups: the first was photostimulated with green light from 5 d of incubation until hatch (0.1 W/m2 intensity) and the second was incubated in the dark. In ovo green light photostimulation caused a significant elevation in BW and breast muscle weight during embryo development and posthatch until 6 d of age. In experiment 3, 240 fertile broiler eggs were divided into 2 groups as described in experiment 2. At hatch, chicks from each in ovo light treatment were divided into 2 subgroups: the first was reared under green light and the second under white light. In ovo photostimulation with green light enhanced BW and breast muscle weight. However, rearing under green light did not have any synergistic effect on BW. Collectively, the results suggest that stimulation with green light enhances development and growth in chicks and that the best effect is achieved when this stimulus is provided during incubation.

Poult Sci. 2004 May;83(5):842-5.

The effect of a green and blue monochromatic light combination on broiler growth and development.

Rozenboim I, Biran I, Chaiseha Y, Yahav S, Rosenstrauch A, Sklan D, Halevy O.

Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Animal Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. rozenboi@agri.huji.ac.il

Previous reports have suggested that green light enhances broiler growth at an early age, whereas blue light enhances growth at older ages. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a switch in monochromatic light at 2 ages on growth and development of broilers. Male chicks (Anak, n = 640) were used. After hatch, chicks were weighed, wing-banded, and blocked into treatment groups. Chicks were grown in 1-m2 pens in 8 isolated light-proof rooms (20 birds/pen). The light treatments were (1) Control white (mini-incandescent lamps), 2) blue light-emitting diode (LED) lamps, 3) green LED lamps, 4) blue LED switching to green at 10 d of age, 5) blue LED switching to green at 20 d of age, 6) green LED switching to blue at 10 d of age, and 7) green LED switching to blue at 20 d of age. There were 8 pens for treatment 1, and 4 pens for each of the other treatments. The light schedule was 23L:1D, and intensity was 0.1 watts/m2. BW and feed consumption were recorded. Green light birds were significantly heavier at 4 d of age. Switching light at 10 d of age from green to blue caused a further increase in BW. This improved growth was maintained until the end of the experiment. Light switching from blue to green at 20 d of age also improved growth as compared with white light. Average feed efficiency and mortality rate did not differ between groups. No association was observed among light treatment, performance, and plasma triiodothyronine concentration. We suggest that green light stimulated growth of birds at early age, and shifting birds to a different light environment at 10 or 20 d of age might further stimulate growth.

Poult Sci. 2003 Jul;82(7):1181-7.

Effect of embryonic photostimulation on the posthatch growth of turkey poults.

Rozenboim I, Huisinga R, Halevy O, El Halawani ME.

Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel. rozenboi@agri.huji.ac.il

Artificial illumination, including light quality, is important in modern meat-type poultry management. In the present study, the effect of in ovo monochromatic green light photostimulation on posthatch growth of turkey poults was investigated. In experiment 1, 182 turkey eggs were divided into two light treatment groups (n = 91). The first group was intermittently photostimulated (3 min on and 3 min off) with green light provided by five light-emitting diodes (LED) per egg at 0.1 W/m2 at the upper eggshell surface. The second group was incubated in the dark and served as the control. Posthatch BW were recorded at 0, 2, 6, 13, 20, 28, 35, and 59 d of age. A heavier BW, occurring at 28 d of age and persisting until the end of the experiment (59 d of age), was observed in the in ovo green light stimulated females as compared to their corresponding controls. In experiment 2, 273 turkey eggs were divided into three light treatment groups (n = 91). The first group was intermittently photostimulated (15 min on and 15 min off) with green light provided by seven LED per egg at 0.14 W/m2. The second group was photostimulated with white light provided by one mini-incandescent lamp per egg at light intensity and schedule similar to the first group. Eggs of the third group were incubated in the dark and served as controls. Posthatch BW were recorded at 0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, and 79 d of age. No differences were found among the BW of males incubated under different light conditions. As in experiment 1, female turkeys with stimulated green light in ovo had greater BW compared to their corresponding control and white light groups from 28 d of age until termination of the experiment at 79 d of age. Breast muscle weight was greater in female turkeys incubated under green light when compared to white and dark incubation treatment groups. We suggest that in ovo green light photostimulation enhances the posthatch BW of female turkey poults.

Poult Sci. 2000 Nov;79(11):1627-31.

Photostimulation of turkey eggs accelerates hatching times without affecting hatchability, liver or heart growth, or glycogen content.

Fairchild BD, Christensen VL.

Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Raleigh 27695-7608, USA.

The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of incubating turkey eggs in the presence of incandescent light on hatching times, as well as liver and heart growth and function of the hatched poult. In each of two independent trials, 180 commercial turkey eggs were incubated either in a 12-h incandescent light:dark schedule or continuous darkness throughout the incubation period (n = 360). Hatching time was observed at 8-h intervals following 25 d of incubation. Hatchability was calculated as a percentage of total eggs set, and was also calculated as a percentage of fertilized eggs. Poult weights, blood glucose, liver weights, and heart weights were measured at hatch. Liver and heart glycogen concentrations were analyzed, and comparisons were made of light-treated hatchlings and controls exposed to continuous darkness. The photostimulation of eggs accelerated hatching times (P < or = 0.01) without affecting hatchability or poult weight at hatching. Neither organ weights nor organ glycogen contents of photostimulated poults differed significantly from controls incubated in the dark. Results of this experiment indicate that the incubation length of turkey eggs may be shortened by photostimulation of eggs during the incubation period without significantly affecting embryonic survival, liver or heart growth, or glycogen content.

Poult Sci. 1999 Jan;78(1):135-8.

The effect of monochromatic light on broiler growth and development.

Rozenboim I, Biran I, Uni Z, Robinzon B, Halevy O.

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Rehovot, Israel. Rozenboi@agri.huji.ac.il

Artificial illumination, including light quality, is crucial in modem broiler management. In the present study, a new, highly efficient, monochromatic light system has been developed for broilers. One hundred and eighty male broiler chicks (Anak) were divided into four light treatment groups (n = 45) in three replicates each. All birds were housed in a single room previously divided by wooden bars into 12 sealed cells of 1 m2. Feed and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. Light intensity was 0.1 W/m2 at the height of birds’ heads and was scheduled for 23 h of light and 1 h of dark during the entire experimental period. Light treatments were: control white (mini-incandescent light bulbs), blue (480 nm), green (560 nm), and red (660 nm). Body weight was recorded periodically, feed consumption was measured daily, and feed efficiency was calculated. Blood samples were taken at 1, 9, and 32 d of age and plasma testosterone was determined. Two necropsies were conducted, at 23 and 35 d of age, and selected glands and organs were weighed. In the group reared under green light, a significant enhancement in weight gain was observed as early as 3 d of age; this gain was maintained during the entire experimental period. Broilers reared under blue light had a later onset of growth enhancement and were significantly heavier than those reared under white and red light at 20 d of age. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly higher in birds reared under blue light. Breast muscle weights were significantly higher in the birds reared under green light at 23 and 35 d of age. These results suggest that green and blue light stimulate growth.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 1998 Jun;120(2):317-23.

Various light source treatments affect body and skeletal muscle growth by affecting skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation in broilers.

Halevy O, Biran I, Rozenboim I.

Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel. halevyo@agri.huji.ac.il

In this study we addressed the effect of various monochromatic light treatments on muscle growth and satellite cell proliferation in broilers (Gallus domesticus). Broilers were reared under green (560 nm), blue (480 nm) and red (660 nm) monochromatic lights and white light as a control from day one until 35 days of age. At five days of age, satellite cells were prepared from the experimental chicks. The number of satellite cells per gram of breast muscle and total number of satellite cells derived from the experimental broilers was substantially higher in the groups reared under green and blue light, compared to the red and white light groups. Growth hormone receptor gene expression was also higher in the former groups. High correlation was found between the breast muscle weight observed on day 35 and the number of satellite cells per gram of breast muscle (r = 0.915) and total number of satellite cells (r = 0.833), derived from the experimental chicks as early as five days of age. In addition, the protein/DNA ratio found in breast muscle at 35 days of age was significantly lower in chicks that were reared under green and blue lights. The lowest ratio which was found in the green group and was twice as low as in the control group, indicates the highest number of nuclei in the former group. As satellite cells are the only source of additional nuclei in skeletal muscles of postnatal animals, our results suggest that the higher muscle weight found in the green and blue light groups was due to increased satellite cell proliferation during the first days of age.

Poult Sci. 1998 Mar;77(3):439-44.

Effect of hen age, body weight, and age at photostimulation. 2. Embryonic characteristics of commercial turkeys.

Applegate TJ, Lilburn MS.

Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster 44691, USA.

Turkey hens from two BW groups (which averaged 11.8 and 12.9 kg, Normal and Heavy, respectively) were photostimulated at either 29 or 31 wk of age to determine how changes in egg weight and egg component weights with hen age affect subsequent embryonic growth and yolk sac lipid mobilization. At 2-wk intervals during the first 10 wk of lay, all eggs were collected, individually weighed, and incubated. A subsample of eggs from each photostimulation (PS) age and BW group were randomly selected for yolk and albumen weight determinations and embryo weight, liver weight, and yolk sac measurements at 21 and 25 d of incubation. Yolk and yolk sac lipid measurements were done on similar sized eggs selected at 4 to 6 and 12 to 14 wk after PS. Yolk-free embryo weight, liver weight, and yolk sac weight at 21 and 25 d of incubation increased during the first 10 wk of lay. Neither hen age nor BW at PS had any consistent effects on yolk-free embryo weight, liver weight, or yolk-sac weight. When similar-sized eggs (80 to 85 g) were selected for analyses, yolk lipid content did not change with hen production age. The lipid content of the yolk sac was 0.97 g greater in 21-d embryos from hens 12 to 14 wk after PS than from hens 4 to 6 wk after PS. Differences in yolk sac residual lipid and lipid subclass characteristics were not evident after 25 d of incubation. In conclusion, hen BW at PS or age at PS had minimal affects on embryonic growth during the last week of incubation, and most differences in embryonic growth were attributed to differences in yolk sac lipid mobilization between hen production ages independent of egg size.