Chlamydia

BMC. Microbiol. 2012 Aug 15;12(1):176. [Epub ahead of print]

Inhibitory effects of 405 nm irradiation on Chlamydia trachomatis growth and characterization of the ensuing inflammatory response in HeLa cells.

Wasson CJ, Zourelias JL, Aardsma NA, Eells JT, Ganger MT, Schober JM, Skwor TA.

Abstract

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND:

Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular bacterium that resides in the conjunctival and reproductive tract mucosae and is responsible for an array of acute and chronic diseases. A percentage of these infections persist even after use of antibiotics, suggesting the need for alternative treatments. Previous studies have demonstrated anti-bacterial effects using different wavelengths of visible light at varying energy densities, though only against extracellular bacteria. We investigated the effects of visible light (405 and 670 nm) irradiation via light emitting diode (LEDs) on chlamydial growth in end cervical epithelial cells, HeLa, during active and penicillin-induced persistent infections. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of this photo treatment on the ensuing secretion of IL-6 and CCL2, two pro-inflammatory cytokines that have previously been identified as immunopathologic components associated with trichiasis in vivo.

RESULTS:

C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells were treated with 405 or 670 nm irradiation at varying energy densities (0 — 20 J/cm2). Bacterial growth was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analyzing the 16S: GAPDH ratio, while cell-free supernatants were examined for IL-6 and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2) production. Our results demonstrated a significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect on chlamydial growth during both active and persistent infections following 405 nm irradiation. Diminished bacterial load corresponded to lower IL-6 concentrations, but was not related to CCL2 levels. In vitro modeling of a persistent C. trachomatis infection induced by penicillin demonstrated significantly elevated IL-6 levels compared to C. trachomatis infection alone, though 405 nm irradiation had a minimal effect on this production.

CONCLUSION:

Together these results identify novel inhibitory effects of 405 nm violet light on the bacterial growth of intracellular bacterium C. trachomatis in vitro, which also coincides with diminished levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech.  2010 Sep-Oct;(5):30-3.

Analysis of parameters of reproductive tract mucosal immunity in women with chlamydial infection before and after local magnetolaserotherapy.

[Article in Russian]

Gizinger OA, Dolgushin II, Letiaeva OI.

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of combined treatment with low-intensity laser radiation and magnetic field on neutrophil function in women presenting with Chlamydial infection. Dysfunction of neutrophil granulocytes in these patients was manifest in the first place as the decreased number of phagocytes and the low rate of phagocytosis. It was shown that the concentration of active oxygen species in neutrophils in the patients with Chlamydial infection was significantly smaller than in healthy women. The concurrent application of low-intensity laser radiation and a magnetic field not only stimulated phagocytosis but also increased intracellular production of active oxygen species especially under in vitro conditions. It is concluded that combined treatment with low-intensity laser radiation and magnetic field has beneficial effect on the parameters of mucosal immunity in the reproductive tract of women with Chlamydial infection.

Urologiia. 2007 May-Jun;(3):50-4, 56.

Efficacy of low-intensity laser radiation and antibacterial therapy in the treatment of chronic prostatitis in the presence of sexually transmitted infections.

[Article in Russian]

Ne?mark AI, Khrianin AA, Safina ON, Ne?mark BA, Kondrat’eva IuS.

We studied 94 patients with chronic prostatitis (CP) in combination with urogenital chlamydiasis. The patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 32 patients with bacterial prostatitis and sexually transmitted infection (STI). They were treated with fromilid in a dose 500 mg twice a day. Group 2 (n = 27) received also low-intensity laser radiation (LILR) on the prostatic gland. Group 3 patients (n = 35) with abacterial prostatitis were given fromilid (500 mg twice a day). We studied prostatic hemodynamics with color doppler mapping. A specific feature of prostatic vascularisation in CP and STI versus healthy subjects is heterogeneous decline of vessels density in ischemic zones with parallel decrease in these vessels diameter. A peripheral prostatic zone in CP patients with STI was characterized by lower vascularisation than central one. This deteriorates the course of the disease. The results of the study show that adjuvant LILR in CP patients with STI raises efficacy of therapy by 11%. Investigation of prostate vascularisation and hemodynamics of its vessels in CP patients with STI using transrectal ultrasonography and dopplerography provide detailed information about prostatic structure allowing for lesion zones. This facilitates choice of an optimal complex treatment with application of LELR in peripheral inflammation of the prostate.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2006 Sep-Oct;(5):20-3.

 

Low-intensity laser radiation effects on local immunity of female reproductive system affected with chlamidia infection

 

[Article in Russian]

Gizinger OA, Dolgushin II.

Low-intensity laser impact on the main effector functions of the cervical secretion neutrophils in females suffering from Chlamidia infection has been studied. Dysfunction of neutrophil granulocytes of the cervical secretion was revealed. This manifested in the decreased number of phagocytes and lower rates of phagocytosis. The study of cervical secretion neutrophils has found that the content of active intracellular forms of oxygen was decreased in patients compared to healthy subjects. Low-intensity laser stimulated not only phagocytosis but also intracellular generation of active oxygen forms. Thus, low-intensity laser eliminates dysfunction of cervical secretion neutrophils.

Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2006 Jul-Aug;(4):105-9.

Immunological and microbiological aspects of low intensity laser effect on the factors of local immunity of the reproductive tract in women with chlamydia infection

 

[Article in Russian]

Dolgushin II, Gizinger OA, Telesheva LF.

Assessment of immunological and microbiological efficacy of Chlamydia cervicitis management was made by a complex method with a low intensity laser. The total number of leukocytes, percentage of viable cells and the number of neutrophils were detected in cervical secrets. Functional status of neutrophils was studied by a content of lysosomes on the ground of spontaneous and induced by latex HCT-reducing capacity, phagocytic activity. A system of cytokines was studied by interleukine level (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, IL-8) and IFN-gamma content in cervical mucus. Positive clinical effect of the local use of the low intensity laser for Chlamydia cervicitis treatment was accompanied by positive changes in immunological indices of cervical secret, normal concentration of cytokines in cervical secret, restoration of the number and functions of neutrophils. Local use of the low intensity laser contributed to decreased number of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms and their associations, and restored local flora.