Aneurysm

Cardiovasc Res. 2009 Sep 1;83(4):785-92. Epub 2009 May 14.

Low-level laser irradiation inhibits abdominal aortic aneurysm progression apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

Gavish L, Rubinstein C, Bulut A, Berlatzky Y, Beeri R, Gilon D, Gavish L, Harlev M, Reissman P, Gertz SD.

Department of Anatomy, The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, PO Box 12272, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.

AIMS: Increased early detection of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and the severe complications of its current treatment have emphasized the need for alternative therapeutic strategies that target pathogenetic mechanisms of progression and rupture. Recent in vitro studies from our laboratory have shown that low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) (780 nm) modifies cellular processes fundamental to aneurysm progression. The present study was designed to determine whether LLLI retards the progression of suprarenal AAA in vivo.

METHODS AND RESULTS: High-frequency ultrasonography (0.01 mm resolution) was used to quantify the effect of LLLI on aneurysmatic aortic dilatation from baseline to 4 weeks after subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II by osmotic minipumps in the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse. At 4 weeks, seven of 15 non-irradiated, but none of the 13 LLLI, mice had aneurysmal dilatation in the suprarenal aneurysm-prone segments that had progressed to >or=50% increase in maximal cross-sectional diameter (CSD) over baseline (P = 0.005 by Fisher’s exact test). The mean CSD of the suprarenal segments (normalized individually to inter-renal control segments) was also significantly lower in irradiated animals (LLLI vs. non-irradiated: 1.32 +/- 0.14 vs. 1.82 +/- 0.39, P = 0.0002 by unpaired, two-tailed t-test) with a 94% reduction in CSD at 4 weeks compared with baseline. M-mode ultrasound data showed that reduced radial wall velocity seen in non-treated was significantly attenuated in the LLLI mice, suggesting a substantial effect on arterial wall elasticity.

CONCLUSION: These in vivo studies, together with previous in vitro studies from this laboratory, appear to provide strong evidence in support of a role for LLLI in the attenuation of aneurysm progression. Further studies in large animals would appear to be the next step towards testing the applicability of this technology to the human interventional setting.

Lasers Surg Med. 2008 Jul;40(5):371-8.

Irradiation with 780 nm diode laser attenuates inflammatory cytokines but upregulates nitric oxide in lipo-polysaccharide-stimulated macrophages: implications for the prevention of aneurysm progression.

Gavish L, Perez LS, Reissman P, Gertz SD.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel. lilachg@ekmd.huji.ac.il

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low level laser irradiation (LLLI) has been shown to reduce inflammation in a variety of clinical situations. We have shown that LLLI (780 nm) increases aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation and matrix protein secretion and modulates activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Inflammation is a major component of arteriosclerotic diseases including aneurysm. Macrophage recruitment and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the vasodilator, nitric oxide (NO), are central to most immune responses in the arterial wall. The present study was designed to determine the effect of LLLI on cytokine gene expression and secretion as well as gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages.

STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Murine monocyte/macrophages (RAW 264.7) were irradiated with a 780 nm diode laser (2 mW/cm(2), 2.2 J/cm(2)) during stimulation with LPS (0, 0.1, and 1 microg/ml). Gene expression of chemokines, cytokines, and iNOS were assessed by RT-PCR. Secretion of interleukin (IL)-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and NO were assessed by ELISA and the Griess reaction, respectively.

RESULTS: LLLI reduced gene expression of MCP-1, IL-1alpha, IL-10 (P<0.01), IL-1beta, and IL-6 (P<0.05) when cells were stimulated by 1 microg/ml LPS. LLLI reduced LPS-induced secretion of MCP-1 over non-irradiated cells by 17+/-5% and 13+/-5% at 12 hours (0.1 and 1 microg/ml LPS; P<0.01 and P=0.05, respectively), and reduced IL-1beta by 22+/-5% and 25+/-9% at 24 hours (0.1 and 1 microg/ml LPS, P=0.01 and P=0.06, respectively). However, LLLI increased NO secretion after 12 hours (LLLI vs. Control: without LPS, 1.72+/-0.37 vs. 0.95+/-0.4 microM, P<0.05; 0.1 microg/ml LPS, 7.46+/-1.62 vs. 4.44+/-1.73 microM, P=0.06; 1 microg/ml LPS, 10.91+/-3.53 vs. 6.88+/-1.52 microM, P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: These properties of LLLI, with its effects on smooth muscle cells reported previously, may be of profound therapeutic relevance for arterial diseases such as aneurysm where inflammatory processes and weakening of the matrix structure of the arterial wall are major pathologic components.