Millimeter Waves – EHF

Adv Gerontol. 2015;28(1):68-71.

INFLUENCE OF MILLIMETER-WAVE ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSION ON NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHESIS DURING VESSEL ENDOTHELIUM AGING IN VITRO.

[Article in Russian]
Molodtsova ID, Medvedev DS, Poliakova VO, Lin’kova NS, Gurko GI.
Abstract
The applying of millimeter-wave electromagnetic emission (EHF-therapy) is an effective method for various age-related pathologies treatment, among other cardio-vascular diseases. During the EHF-emission of aging human endothelial cell cultures it was obtained changing of NO-synthase (eNOS), endothelin-1, angiotensin-2 and vasopressin expression dependence of irradiation exposition. These data have shown that EHF-emission has activated endothelium functional activity, which can play the important role to search for approaches to treatment of arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2014 Sep;157(5):574-6. doi: 10.1007/s10517-014-2618-6. Epub 2014 Sep 27.

Effects of millimeter-wave electromagnetic exposure on the morphology and function of human cryopreserved spermatozoa.

Volkova NA1, Pavlovich EV, Gapon AA, Nikolov OT.

Author information

  • 1Institute of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine, volkovanatali2006@yandex.ru.

Abstract

Exposure of human cryopreserved spermatozoa to millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation of 0.03 mW/cm2 density for 5 min in normozoospermia and for 15 min in asthenozoospermia lead to increase of the fraction of mobile spermatozoa without impairing the membrane integrity and nuclear chromatin status and without apoptosis generation.

Int J Mol Med. 2012 May;29(5):823-31. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2012.919. Epub 2012 Feb 16.

Millimeter wave treatment promotes chondrocyte proliferation via G1/S cell cycle transition.

Li X, Ye H, Yu F, Cai L, Li H, Chen J, Wu M, Chen W, Lin R, Li Z, Zheng C, Xu H, Wu G, Liu X.

Source

Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou 350108, P.R. China.

Abstract

Millimeter waves, high-frequency electromagnetic waves, can effectively alleviate the clinical symptoms in osteoarthritis patients, as a non-pharmaceutical and non-invasive physical therapy regimen. However, the molecular mechanisms of the therapeutic effects of millimeter wave treatment are not well understood. In the present study, the effect of millimeter waves on the G1/S cell cycle progression in chondrocytes and the underlying mechanism was investigated. Chondrocytes isolated from the knee of SD rats were cultured and identified using toluidine blue staining. The second generation chondrocytes were collected and stimulated with or without millimeter waves for 48 h. Chondrocyte viability was analyzed using the MTT assay. The cell cycle distribution of chondrocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry. mRNA and protein expression levels of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6) and p21 were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Millimeter wave stimulation was found to significantly enhance chondrocyte viability. Moreover, the percentage of chondrocytes in the G0/G1 phase was significantly decreased, whereas that in the S phase was significantly increased. In addition, following millimeter wave treatment, cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 expression was significantly upregulated, whereas p21 expression was significantly downregulated. The results indicate that millimeter wave treatment promotes chondrocyte proliferation via cell cycle progression.

Int J Mol Med. 2010 Jul;26(1):77-84.

Millimeter wave treatment promotes chondrocyte proliferation by upregulating the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and cyclin A.

Li X, Du M, Liu X, Chen W, Wu M, Lin J, Wu G.

Source

Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, University Town, Minhou Shangjie, Fujian 350108, PR China.

Abstract

We investigated the effects of millimeter wave treatment on the expression of the cell cycle regulating proteins cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and cyclin A in chondrocytes. Knee articular cartilage from SD rats was used to establish cultured primary chondrocytes. After identification using toluidine blue staining, passage 2 chondrocytes were randomly divided into different groups and treated with nocodazole or millimeter wave. The RNA expression of CDK2 and cyclin A was measured using RT-PCR, and their protein levels were detected by Western blotting. Cell cycle analysis showed that nocodazole treatment significantly increased the number of G0/G1 and G2/M stage chondrocytes and decreased the amount of S phase cells. In contrast, millimeter wave treatment significantly decreased the number of G0/G1 and G2/M chondrocytes and increased the number of S phase cells. The mRNA and protein levels of CDK2 and cyclin A consistently demonstrated a reverse trend, with the lowest levels in the chondrocytes treated with nocodazole. The expression of CDK2 and cyclin A was higher in chondrocytes receiving millimeter wave treatment than in untreated cells. In conclusion, millimeter wave treatment induces CDK2 and cyclin A expression, accelerates S-phase entry and G2/M transition and promotes chondrocyte cell cycle progression.

Int J Mol Med. 2012 May;29(5):823-31. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2012.919. Epub 2012 Feb 16.

Millimeter wave treatment promotes chondrocyte proliferation via G1/S cell cycle transition.

Li X, Ye H, Yu F, Cai L, Li H, Chen J, Wu M, Chen W, Lin R, Li Z, Zheng C, Xu H, Wu G, Liu X.

Source

Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou 350108, P.R. China.

Abstract

Millimeter waves, high-frequency electromagnetic waves, can effectively alleviate the clinical symptoms in osteoarthritis patients, as a non-pharmaceutical and non-invasive physical therapy regimen. However, the molecular mechanisms of the therapeutic effects of millimeter wave treatment are not well understood. In the present study, the effect of millimeter waves on the G1/S cell cycle progression in chondrocytes and the underlying mechanism was investigated. Chondrocytes isolated from the knee of SD rats were cultured and identified using toluidine blue staining. The second generation chondrocytes were collected and stimulated with or without millimeter waves for 48 h. Chondrocyte viability was analyzed using the MTT assay. The cell cycle distribution of chondrocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry. mRNA and protein expression levels of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6) and p21 were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Millimeter wave stimulation was found to significantly enhance chondrocyte viability. Moreover, the percentage of chondrocytes in the G0/G1 phase was significantly decreased, whereas that in the S phase was significantly increased. In addition, following millimeter wave treatment, cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 expression was significantly upregulated, whereas p21 expression was significantly downregulated. The results indicate that millimeter wave treatment promotes chondrocyte proliferation via cell cycle progression.

Georgian Med News.  2011 Jun;(195):65-70.

The effect of rehabilitation with therapeutic Akhtala muds and electromagnetic radiation of millimeter range on biochemical indices in patients with post discectomy syndrome.

[Article in Russian]
Dokhnadze TD.

Abstract

The impact of therapeutic Akhtala muds and electromagnetic radiation of millimeter range on biochemical indices in patients with post discectomy syndrome has been investigated. The research showed that medical rehabilitation with Akhtala medical muds and electromagnetic radiation of millimeter range stimulates sympathetic-adrenal system, adrenocorticotrophic function of the hypophysis and glucocorticoid function of adrenal cortex, induces a weakening/removal of an inflammatory process in the operated area, enhances antioxidant defense of the organism, oppresses calcium metabolism and peroxide oxidation of lipids. The noted positive process was manifested in the increase up to upper limit of the norm of daily excretion of adrenalin and noradrenalin, the content of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol in blood plasma and in the decrease of the amount of malonic dialdehyde in it, also in the increase of antioxidative activity of blood plasma, in the decrease of the content of “?”-reactive protein, haptoglobin, seroglicoids, common and ionic calcium in blood serum.

J Neural Eng. 2010 Aug;7(4):045003. Epub 2010 Jul 19.

Modulation of neuronal activity and plasma membrane properties with low-power millimeter waves in organotypic cortical slices.

Pikov V, Arakaki X, Harrington M, Fraser SE, Siegel PH.

Neural Engineering Program, Huntington Medial Research Institutes, Pasadena, CA, USA. pikov@hotmail.com

Abstract

As millimeter waves (MMWs) are being increasingly used in communications and military applications, their potential effects on biological tissue has become an important issue for scientific inquiry. Specifically, several MMW effects on the whole-nerve activity were reported, but the underlying neuronal changes remain unexplored. This study used slices of cortical tissue to evaluate the MMW effects on individual pyramidal neurons under conditions mimicking their in vivo environment. The applied levels of MMW power are three orders of magnitude below the existing safe limit for human exposure of 1 mW cm(-2). Surprisingly, even at these low power levels, MMWs were able to produce considerable changes in neuronal firing rate and plasma membrane properties. At the power density approaching 1 microW cm(-2), 1 min of MMW exposure reduced the firing rate to one third of the pre-exposure level in four out of eight examined neurons. The width of the action potentials was narrowed by MMW exposure to 17% of the baseline value and the membrane input resistance decreased to 54% of the baseline value across all neurons. These effects were short lasting (2 min or less) and were accompanied by MMW-induced heating of the bath solution at 3 degrees C. Comparison of these results with previously published data on the effects of general bath heating of 10 degrees C indicated that MMW-induced effects cannot be fully attributed to heating and may involve specific MMW absorption by the tissue. Blocking of the intracellular Ca(2+)-mediated signaling did not significantly alter the MMW-induced neuronal responses suggesting that MMWs interacted directly with the neuronal plasma membrane. The presented results constitute the first demonstration of direct real-time monitoring of the impact of MMWs on nervous tissue at a microscopic scale. Implication of these findings for the therapeutic modulation of neuronal excitability is discussed.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2010 Apr;31(3):180-90.

Millimeter wave effects on electrical responses of the sural nerve in vivo.

Alekseev SI, Gordiienko OV, Radzievsky AA, Ziskin MC.

Center for Biomedical Physics, Temple University Medical School, 3400 N. Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.

Abstract

Millimeter wave (MMW, 42.25 GHz)-induced changes in electrical activity of the murine sural nerve were studied in vivo using external electrode recordings. MMW were applied to the receptive field of the sural nerve in the hind paw. We found two types of responses of the sural nerve to MMW exposure. First, MMW exposure at the incident power density >/=45 mW/cm(2) inhibited the spontaneous electrical activity. Exposure with lower intensities (10-30 mW/cm(2)) produced no detectable changes in the firing rate. Second, the nerve responded to the cessation of MMW exposure with a transient increase in the firing rate. The effect lasted 20-40 s. The threshold intensity for this effect was 160 mW/cm(2). Radiant heat exposure reproduced only the inhibitory effect of MMW but not the transient excitatory response. Depletion of mast cells by compound 48/80 eliminated the transient response of the nerve. It was suggested that the cold sensitive fibers were responsible for the inhibitory effect of MMW and radiant heat exposures. However, the receptors and mechanisms involved in inducing the transient response to MMW exposure are not clear. The hypothesis of mast cell involvement was discussed.

Radiat Res. 2009 Dec;172(6):725-36.

Altered calcium dynamics mediates P19-derived neuron-like cell responses to millimeter-wave radiation.

Titushkin IA, Rao VS, Pickard WF, Moros EG, Shafirstein G, Cho MR.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 851 S. Morgan Street, Chicago, IL 60607, USA.

Abstract

Intracellular calcium oscillations have long been recognized as a principal mediator of many vital cellular activities. Furthermore, Ca(2+) dynamics can be modulated by external physical cues, including electromagnetic fields. While cellular responses to low-frequency electric fields have been established, the possible non-thermal effects of millimeter-wave (MMW) radiation are still a subject of discussion and debate. We used mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal cells and a custom-built 94 GHz applicator to examine in real time the altered Ca(2+) oscillations associated with MMW stimulation. MMW irradiation at 18.6 kW/m(2) nominal power density significantly increased the Ca(2+) spiking frequency in the cells exhibiting Ca(2+) activity. The N-type calcium channels, phospholipase C enzyme, and actin cytoskeleton appear to be involved in mediating increased Ca(2+) spiking. Reorganization of the actin microfilaments by a 94 GHz field seems to play a crucial role in modulating not only Ca(2+) activity but also cell biomechanics. Many but not all observed cellular responses to MMW were similar to thermally induced effects. For example, cell exposure to a 94 GHz field induced nitric oxide production in some morphologically distinct neuronal cells that could not be reproduced by thermal heating of the cells up to 42 degrees C. The highest observed average temperature rise in the MMW exposure chamber was approximately 8 degrees C above the room temperature, with possible complex non-uniform microscopic distribution of heating rates at the cell level. Our findings may be useful to establish quantitative molecular benchmarks for elucidation of nociception mechanisms and evaluation of potential adverse bioeffects associated with MMW exposure. Moreover, control of Ca(2+) dynamics by MMW stimulation may offer new tools for regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent cellular and molecular activities, for example, in tissue engineering applications.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2009 Sep;30(6):454-61.

Features of anti-inflammatory effects of modulated extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation.

Gapeyev AB, Mikhailik EN, Chemeris NK.

Institute of Cell Biophysics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia. gapeyev@icb.psn.ru

Abstract

Using a model of acute zymosan-induced paw edema in NMRI mice, we test the hypothesis that anti-inflammatory effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) can be essentially modified by application of pulse modulation with certain frequencies. It has been revealed that a single exposure of animals to continuous EHF EMR for 20 min reduced the exudative edema of inflamed paw on average by 19% at intensities of 0.1-0.7 mW/cm(2) and frequencies from the range of 42.2-42.6 GHz. At fixed effective carrier frequency of 42.2 GHz, the anti-inflammatory effect of EHF EMR did not depend on modulation frequencies, that is, application of different modulation frequencies from the range of 0.03-100 Hz did not lead to considerable changes in the effect level. On the contrary, at “ineffective” carrier frequencies of 43.0 and 61.22 GHz, the use of modulation frequencies of 0.07-0.1 and 20-30 Hz has allowed us to restore the effect up to a maximal level. The results obtained show the critical dependence of anti-inflammatory action of low-intensity EHF EMR on carrier and modulation frequencies. Within the framework of this study, the possibility of changing the level of expected biological effect of modulated EMR by a special selection of combination of carrier and modulation frequencies is confirmed.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2008 May;29(4):284-95.

Electromagnetic millimeter wave induced hypoalgesia: frequency dependence and involvement of endogenous opioids.

Radzievsky AA, Gordiienko OV, Alekseev S, Szabo I, Cowan A, Ziskin MC.

Center for Biomedical Physics, Temple University Medical School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA. aradziev@temple.edu

Abstract

Millimeter wave treatment (MMWT) is based on the systemic biological effects that develop following local skin exposure to low power electromagnetic waves in the millimeter range. In the present set of experiments, the hypoalgesic effect of this treatment was analyzed in mice. The murine nose area was exposed to MMW of “therapeutic” frequencies: 42.25, 53.57, and 61.22 GHz. MMWT-induced hypoalgesia was shown to be frequency dependent in two experimental models: (1) the cold water tail-flick test (chronic non-neuropathic pain), and (2) the wire surface test (chronic neuropathic pain following unilateral constriction injury to the sciatic nerve). Maximum hypoalgesic effect was obtained when the frequency was 61.22 GHz. Other exposure parameters were: incident power density = 13.3 mW/cm(2), duration of each exposure = 15 min. Involvement of delta and kappa endogenous opioids in the MMWT-induced hypoalgesia was demonstrated using selective blockers of delta- and kappa-opioid receptors and the direct ELISA measurement of endogenous opioids in CNS tissue. Possible mechanisms of the effect and the perspectives of the clinical application of MMWT are discussed.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2008 Apr;29(3):197-206.

Anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation: frequency and power dependence.

Gapeyev AB, Mikhailik EN, Chemeris NK.

Institute of Cell Biophysics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia. gapeyev@icb.psn.ru

Abstract

Using a model of acute zymosan-induced footpad edema in NMRI mice, the frequency and power dependence of anti-inflammatory effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) was found. Single whole-body exposure of animals to EHF EMR at the intensity of 0.1 mW/cm(2) for 20 min at 1 h after zymosan injection reduced both the footpad edema and local hyperthermia on average by 20% at the frequencies of 42.2, 51.8, and 65 GHz. Some other frequencies from the frequency range of 37.5-70 GHz were less effective or not effective at all. At fixed frequency of 42.2 GHz and intensity of 0.1 mW/cm(2), the effect had bell-shaped dependence on exposure duration with a maximum at 20-40 min. Reduction of intensity to 0.01 mW/cm(2) resulted in a change of the effect dependence on exposure duration to a linear one. Combined action of cyclooxygenase inhibitor sodium diclofenac and EHF EMR exposure caused a partial additive effect of decrease in footpad edema. Combined action of antihistamine clemastine and EHF EMR exposure caused a dose-dependent abolishment of the anti-inflammatory effect of EHF EMR. The results obtained suggest that arachidonic acid metabolites and histamine are involved in realization of anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity EHF EMR.

Biofizika. 2007 Sep-Oct;52(5):947-52.

Dependence of anti-inflammatory effects of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency on exposure parameters.

[Article in Russian]

Gapeev AB, Mikha?lik EN, Rubanik AV, Cheremis NK.

Abstract

A pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency was shown for the first time in a model of zymosan-induced footpad edema in mice. Exposure to radiation of specific parameters (35, 27 GHz, peak power 20 kW, pulse widths 400-600 ns, pulse repetition frequency 5-500 Hz) decreased the exudative edema and local hyperthermia by 20% compared to the control. The kinetics and the magnitude of the anti-inflammatory effect were comparable with those induced by sodium diclofenac at a dose of 3 mg/kg. It was found that the anti-inflammatory effect linearly increased with increasing pulse width at a fixed pulse repetition frequency and had threshold dependence on the average incident power density of the radiation at a fixed pulse width. When animals were whole-body exposed in the far-field zone of radiator, the optimal exposure duration was 20 min. Increasing the average incident power density upon local exposure of the inflamed paw accelerated both the development of the anti-inflammatory effect and the reactivation time. The results obtained will undoubtedly be of great importance in the hygienic standardization of pulsed electromagnetic radiation and in further studies of the mechanisms of its biological action.

Probl Tuberk Bolezn Legk. 2007;(4):8-10.

Impact of various millimeter-range electromagnetic radiation schedules on immunological parameters in patients with respiratory sarcoidosis.

[Article in Russian]

Borisov SB, Shpykov AS, Terent’eva NA.

Abstract

The paper analyzes the impact of various millimeter-range electromagnetic radiation schedules on immunological parameters in 152 patients with new-onset respiratory sarcoidosis. It shows that the immunomodulatory effect of millimeter-range therapy depends on the treatment regimen chosen. There is evidence for the advantages of millimeter-range noise electromagnetic radiation.

Biofizika. 2006 Nov-Dec;51(6):1055-68.

Pharmacological analysis of anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation.

[Article in Russian]

Gapeev AB, Lushnikov KV, Shumilina IuV, Chemeris NK.

Abstract

The anti-inflammatory effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR, 42.0 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2) was compared with the action of the known anti-inflammatory drug sodium diclofenac and the antihistamine clemastine on acute inflammatory reaction in NMRI mice. The local inflammatory reaction was induced by intraplantar injection of zymosan into the left hind paw. Sodium diclofenac in doses of 2, 3, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg or clemastine in doses of 0.02, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally 30 min after the initiation of inflammation. The animals were whole-body exposed to EHF EMR for 20 min at 1 h after the initiation of inflammation. The inflammatory reaction was assessed over 3 – 8 h after the initiation by measuring the footpad edema and hyperthermia of the inflamed paw. Sodium diclofenac in doses of 5 – 20 mg/kg reduced the exudative edema on the average by 26% as compared to the control. Hyperthermia of the inflamed paw decreased to 60% as the dose of was increased diclofenac up to 20 mg/kg. EHF EMR reduced both the footpad edema and hyperthermia by about 20%, which was comparable with the effect of a single therapeutic dose of diclofenac (3 – 5 mg/kg). The combined action of diclofenac and the exposure to the EHF EMR caused a partial additive effect. Clemastine in doses of 0.02-0.4 mg/kg it did not cause any significant effects on the exudative edema, but in a dose of 0.6 mg/kg it reduced edema by 14 – 22% by 5 – 8 h after zymosan injection. Clemastine caused a dose-dependent increase in hyperthermia of inflamed paw at doses of 0.02-0.2 mg/kg and did not affect the hyperthermia at doses of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg. The combined action of clemastine and EHF EMR exposure caused a dose-dependent abolishment of the anti-inflammatory effect of EHF EMR. The results obtained suggest that both arachidonic acid metabolites and histamine are involved in the realization of anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity

Bioelectromagnetics. 2006 Sep;27(6):458-66.

Effect of cyclophosphamide and 61.22 GHz millimeter waves on T-cell, B-cell, and macrophage functions.

Makar VR, Logani MK, Bhanushali A, Alekseev SI, Ziskin MC.

Center for Biomedical Physics, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA.

Abstract

The present study was undertaken to investigate whether millimeter waves (MMWs) at 61.22 GHz can modulate the effect of cyclophosphamide (CPA), an anti-cancer drug, on the immune functions of mice. During the exposure each mouse’s nose was placed in front of the center of the antenna aperture (1.5 x 1.5 cm) of MMW generator. The device produced 61.22 +/- 0.2 GHz wave radiation. Spatial peak Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) at the skin surface and spatial peak incident power density were measured as 885 +/- 100 W/kg and 31 +/- 5 mW/cm(2), respectively. Duration of the exposure was 30 min each day for 3 consecutive days. The maximum temperature elevation at the tip of the nose, measured at the end of 30 min, was 1 degrees C. CPA injection (100 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally on the second day of exposure to MMWs. The animals were sacrificed 2, 5, and 7 days after CPA administration. MMW exposure caused upregulation in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production in peritoneal macrophages suppressed by CPA administration. MMWs also caused a significant increase in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by splenocytes and enhanced proliferative activity of T-cells. Conversely, no changes were observed in interleukin-10 (IL-10) level and B-cell proliferation. These results suggest that MMWs accelerate the recovery process selectively through a T-cell-mediated immune response.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2006 May;27(4):258-64.

Effect of millimeter wave irradiation on tumor metastasis.

Logani MK, Szabo I, Makar V, Bhanushali A, Alekseev S, Ziskin MC.

Richard J. Fox Center for Biomedical Physics, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. mlogani@temple.edu

Abstract

One of the major side effects of chemotherapy in cancer treatment is that it can enhance tumor metastasis due to suppression of natural killer (NK) cell activity. The present study was undertaken to examine whether millimeter electromagnetic waves (MMWs) irradiation (42.2 GHz) can inhibit tumor metastasis enhanced by cyclophosphamide (CPA), an anticancer drug. MMWs were produced with a Russian-made YAV-1 generator. Peak SAR and incident power density were measured as 730 +/- 100 W/kg and 36.5 +/- 5 mW/cm(2), respectively. Tumor metastasis was evaluated in C57BL/6 mice, an experimental murine model commonly used for metastatic melanoma. The animals were divided into 5 groups, 10 animals per group. The first group was not given any treatment. The second group was irradiated on the nasal area with MMWs for 30 min. The third group served as a sham control for group 2. The fourth group was given CPA (150 mg/kg body weight, ip) before irradiation. The fifth group served as a sham control for group 4. On day 2, all animals were injected, through a tail vein, with B16F10 melanoma cells, a tumor cell line syngeneic to C57BL/6 mice. Tumor colonies in lungs were counted 2 weeks following inoculation. CPA caused a marked enhancement in tumor metastases (fivefold), which was significantly reduced when CPA-treated animals were irradiated with MMWs. Millimeter waves also increased NK cell activity suppressed by CPA, suggesting that a reduction in tumor metastasis by MMWs is mediated through activation of NK cells.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2006 May-Jun;(3):14-6.

Administration of ehf-therapy for rehabilitation of locomotor diseases.

[Article in Russian]

Miriutova NF, Bartfel’d NN, Kozhemiakin AM.

Abstract

Noise EHF radiation under low-frequency (10 Hz) modulation both in monovariant and in combination with spinal tractions promotes regression of neuro-orthopedic disorders. Good effects were achieved due to improvement of zonal hemodynamics, conditions of functioning of the neuromuscular and locomotor system of the spine and limbs, favourable shifts in biochemical and autonomic status of patients with lumbar osteochondrosis and osteoarthrosis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Jun;3(2):201-7. Epub 2006 Apr 24.

Low-intensity electromagnetic millimeter waves for pain therapy.

Usichenko TI, Edinger H, Gizhko VV, Lehmann C, Wendt M, Feyerherd F.

Abstract

Millimeter wave therapy (MWT), a non-invasive complementary therapeutic technique is claimed to possess analgesic properties. We reviewed the clinical studies describing the pain-relief effect of MWT. Medline-based search according to review criteria and evaluation of methodological quality of the retrieved studies was performed. Of 13 studies, 9 of them were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), only three studies yielded more than 3 points on the Oxford scale of methodological quality of RCTs. MWT was reported to be effective in the treatment of headache, arthritic, neuropathic and acute postoperative pain. The rapid onset of pain relief during MWT lasting hours to days after, remote to the site of exposure (acupuncture points), was the most characteristic feature in MWT application for pain relief. The most commonly used parameters of MWT were the MW frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz and power density up to 10 mW cm(-2). The promising results from pilot case series studies and small-size RCTs for analgesic/hypoalgesic effects of MWT should be verified in large-scale RCTs on the effectiveness of this treatment method.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2006 May-Jun;(3):32-4.

Low-energy wideband electromagnetic radiation and manual therapy in the treatment of neurological manifestations of spinal osteochondrosis.

[Article in Russian]

Afoshin SA, Gerasimenko MIu.

Abstract

It is shown that the advanced technique of low-energy wideband electromagnetic radiation improves vascular tonicity and peripheral circulation while a modified technique of manual therapy facilitates movements in the affected part of the spine and reduces tonicity of the muscles involved in the pathological process.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2005 Mar-Apr;(2):24-6.

EHF-therapy and IR radiation in combined treatment of children suffering from atopic dermatitis.

[Article in Russian]

Perminova EB, Gridneva TD.

Abstract

One hundred and 30 patients with atopic dermatitis were divided into three groups. The patients of group 1 (50 children) received EHF-IR therapy on biologically active points, the patients of group 2 (50 children) received EHF therapy alone, 30 children of group 3 received only chemotherapy. A comparison of the three methods of atopic dermatitis treatment revealed that EHF-IR therapy is superior to the rest treatments by both short- and long-term treatment outcomes.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2005 Jan;26(1):10-9.

Effect of millimeter waves on natural killer cell activation.

Makar VR, Logani MK, Bhanushali A, Kataoka M, Ziskin MC.

Richard J Fox Center for Biomedical Physics, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.

Abstract

Millimeter wave therapy (MMWT) is being widely used for the treatment of many diseases in Russia and other East European countries. MMWT has been reported to reduce the toxic effects of chemotherapy on the immune system. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether millimeter waves (MMWs) can modulate the effect of cyclophosphamide (CPA), an anticancer drug, on natural killer (NK) cell activity. NK cells play an important role in the antitumor response. MMWs were produced with a Russian-made YAV-1 generator. The device produced modulated 42.2 +/- 0.2 GHz radiation through a 10 x 20 mm rectangular output horn. Mice, restrained in plastic tubes, were irradiated on the nasal area. Peak SAR at the skin surface and peak incident power density were measured as 622 +/- 100 W/kg and 31 +/- 5 mW/cm2, respectively. The maximum temperature elevation, measured at the end of 30 min, was 1 degrees C. The animals, restrained in plastic tubes, were irradiated on the nasal area. CPA injection (100 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally on the second day of 3-days exposure to MMWs. All the irradiation procedures were performed in a blinded manner. NK cell activation and cytotoxicity were measured after 2, 5, and 7 days following CPA injection. Flow cytometry of NK cells showed that CPA treatment caused a marked enhancement in NK cell activation. The level of CD69 expression, which represents a functional triggering molecule on activated NK cells, was increased in the CPA group at all the time points tested as compared to untreated mice. However, the most enhancement in CD69 expression was observed on day 7. A significant increase in TNF-alpha level was also observed on day 7 following CPA administration. On the other hand, CPA caused a suppression of the cytolytic activity of NK cells. MMW irradiation of the CPA treated groups resulted in further enhancement of CD69 expression on NK cells, as well as in production of TNF-alpha. Furthermore, MMW irradiation restored CPA induced suppression of the cytolytic activity of NK cells. Our results show that MMW irradiation at 42.2 GHz can up-regulate NK cell functions.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2005 Jan;26(1):10-9.

Effect of millimeter waves on natural killer cell activation.

Makar VR, Logani MK, Bhanushali A, Kataoka M, Ziskin MC.

Richard J Fox Center for Biomedical Physics, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.

Abstract

Millimeter wave therapy (MMWT) is being widely used for the treatment of many diseases in Russia and other East European countries. MMWT has been reported to reduce the toxic effects of chemotherapy on the immune system. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether millimeter waves (MMWs) can modulate the effect of cyclophosphamide (CPA), an anticancer drug, on natural killer (NK) cell activity. NK cells play an important role in the antitumor response. MMWs were produced with a Russian-made YAV-1 generator. The device produced modulated 42.2 +/- 0.2 GHz radiation through a 10 x 20 mm rectangular output horn. Mice, restrained in plastic tubes, were irradiated on the nasal area. Peak SAR at the skin surface and peak incident power density were measured as 622 +/- 100 W/kg and 31 +/- 5 mW/cm2, respectively. The maximum temperature elevation, measured at the end of 30 min, was 1 degrees C. The animals, restrained in plastic tubes, were irradiated on the nasal area. CPA injection (100 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally on the second day of 3-days exposure to MMWs. All the irradiation procedures were performed in a blinded manner. NK cell activation and cytotoxicity were measured after 2, 5, and 7 days following CPA injection. Flow cytometry of NK cells showed that CPA treatment caused a marked enhancement in NK cell activation. The level of CD69 expression, which represents a functional triggering molecule on activated NK cells, was increased in the CPA group at all the time points tested as compared to untreated mice. However, the most enhancement in CD69 expression was observed on day 7. A significant increase in TNF-alpha level was also observed on day 7 following CPA administration. On the other hand, CPA caused a suppression of the cytolytic activity of NK cells. MMW irradiation of the CPA treated groups resulted in further enhancement of CD69 expression on NK cells, as well as in production of TNF-alpha. Furthermore, MMW irradiation restored CPA induced suppression of the cytolytic activity of NK cells. Our results show that MMW irradiation at 42.2 GHz can up-regulate NK cell functions.

Biofizika. 2004 May-Jun;49(3):545-50.

A comparison of the effects of millimeter and centimeter waves on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells.

[Article in Russian]

Sinotova OA, Novoselova EG, Glushkova OV, Fesenko EE.

Abstract

The effects of millimeter (40 GHz) and centimeter (8.15-18.00 GHz) low-intensity waves on the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNE) in macrophages and lymphocytes from exposed mice as well as in exposed isolated cells were compared. It was found that the dynamics of TNF secretory activity of cells varies depending on the frequency and duration of exposure. The application of millimeter waves induced a nonmonotonous course of the dose-effect curve for TNF changes in macrophages and splenocytes. Alternately, a stimulation and a decrease in TNF production were observed following the application of millimeter waves. On the contrary, centimeter waves provoked an activation in cytokine production. It is proposed that, in contrast to millimeter waves, the single application of centimeter waves to animals (within 2 to 96 h) or isolated cells (within 0.5 to 2.5 h) induced a much more substantial stimulation of immunity.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2004 Jan-Feb;(1):9-12.

EHF-puncture in combined rehabilitation of children with vertebrobasilar insufficiency syndrome in spinal deformities.

[Article in Russian]

Poliakova AG, Loskytova NV, Kareva OV.

Abstract

The results were compared of different programs of rehabilitation in 45 patients aged 5 to 18 years with spinal deformities and vertebrobasilar failure. Control patients received only basic therapy, the study group received also EHF-puncture. The efficacy of rehabilitation was confirmed by electropuncture diagnosis and rheoencephalogram. The patients with high tonicity of small vessels demonstrated a significantly improved regional circulation. This favours differential use of EHF puncture in the complex of rehabilitative measures.

Eur J Pain. 2003;7(3):289-94.

Treatment of chronic pain with millimetre wave therapy (MWT) in patients with diffuse connective tissue diseases: a pilot case series study.

Usichenko TI, Herget HF.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Ernst Moritz Arndt University, Friedrich Loeffler Strasse 23b, 17487 Greifswald, Germany. taras@uni-greifswald.de

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pain relief is reported to be the most common clinical application of electromagnetic millimetre waves.

AIM: To evaluate safety and pain relief effect of millimetre wave therapy (MWT) for treatment of chronic joint pain in a group of patients with diffuse connective tissue diseases.

METHODS: Twelve patients with diffuse connective tissue diseases received MWT in addition to their analgesic medication with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. MWT procedure included the exposure of tender points around the painful joints to electromagnetic waves with frequency 54-78GHz and power density of 2.5mW/cm(2). The time of exposure was 35 +/-5 min and the total number of sessions ranged from 5 to 10 (median 6). Intensity of pain, medication requirement, joint stiffness and subjective assessment of therapy success were measured before, during and immediately after the treatment, and after a 6-months follow-up.

RESULTS: No adverse effects of MWT were noted. Pain intensity and required medication decreased significantly after the treatment (p<0.05) and remained at the same level throughout the follow-up period. The joint stiffness decreased and the subjective assessment of the treatment success after 6 month did not change except in only one patient.

CONCLUSION: MWT applied to tender points around the affected joints was safe under the conditions of our study and after an appropriate full-scale double-blind clinical study, may be recommended as an effective adjunct therapy for chronic pain treatment in patients with diffuse connective tissue diseases.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2003 Jul;24(5):356-65.

Effect of millimeter waves on cyclophosphamide induced suppression of T cell functions.

Makar V, Logani M, Szabo I, Ziskin M.

Richard J. Fox Center for Biomedical Physics, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA.

Abstract

The effects of low power electromagnetic millimeter waves (MWs) on T cell activation, proliferation, and effector functions were studied in BALB/c mice. These functions are important in T-lymphocyte mediated immune responses. The MW exposure characteristics were: frequency = 42.2 GHz; peak incident power density = 31 +/- 5 mW/cm(2), peak specific absorption rate (SAR) at the skin surface = 622 +/- 100 W/kg; duration 30 min daily for 3 days. MW treatment was applied to the nasal area. The mice were additionally treated with cyclophosphamide (CPA), 100 mg/kg, a commonly used immunosuppressant and anticancer drug. Four groups of animals were used in each experiment: naive control (Naive), CPA treated (CPA), CPA treated and sham exposed (CPA + Sham), and CPA treated and MW exposed (CPA + MW). MW irradiation of CPA treated mice significantly augmented the proliferation recovery process of T cells (splenocytes). A statistically significant difference (P <.05) between CPA and CPA + MW groups was observed when cells were stimulated with an antigen. On the other hand, no statistically significant difference between CPA and CPA-Sham groups was observed. Based on flow cytometry of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, two major classes of T cells, we show that CD4(+) T cells play an important role in the proliferation recovery process. MW exposure restored the CD25 surface activation marker expression in CD4(+) T cells. We next examined the effector function of purified CD4(+) T cells by measuring their cytokine profile. No changes were observed after MW irradiation in interleukin-10 (IL-10) level, a Th2 type cytokine, while the level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), a Th1 type cytokine was increased twofold. Our results indicate that MWs enhance the effector function of CD4(+) T cells preferentially, through initiating a Th1 type of immune response. This was further supported by our observation of a significant enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production by peritoneal macrophage’s in CPA treated mice. The present study shows MWs ameliorate the immunosuppressive effects of CPA by augmenting the proliferation of splenocytes, and altering the activation and effector functions of CD4(+) T cells.

Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2003 Sep-Oct;43(5):531-4.

Activity of natural killer cells of the spleen of mice exposed to low-intensity of extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation.

[Article in Russian]

Oga? VB, Novoselova EG, Cherenkov DA, Fesenko EE.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, 142290 Russia. ogay@mail.icb.psn.ru

Abstract

The dose dependence of natural killer (NK) cell activity from mouse spleen upon action of low-intensity millimeter waves in the exposure range from 5 to 96 hours was studied. It has found an increase of NK activity by 24 hours posttreatment that returned to normal level in a day after the cessation of the irradiation. Also the stimulation of isolated NK cell activity after millimeter waves treatment within 1 hour was revealed.

Acupunct Electrother Res. 2003;28(1-2):11-8.

Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with electromagnetic millimeter waves applied to acupuncture points–a randomized double blind clinical study.

Usichenko TI, Ivashkivsky OI, Gizhko VV.

Anesthesiology & Intensive Care Medicine Department, University of Greifswald, Germany. taras@uni-greifswald.de

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electromagnetic millimeter waves (MW) applied to acupuncture points in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twelve patients with RA were exposed to MW with power 2.5 mW and band frequency 54-64 GHz. MW were applied to the acupuncture points of the affected joints in a double blind manner. At least 2 and maximum 4 points were consecutively exposed to MW during one session. Total exposure time consisted of 40 minutes. According to the study design, group I received only real millimeter wave therapy (MWT) sessions, group II only sham sessions. Group III was exposed to MW in a random cross-over manner. Pain intensity, joint stiffness and laboratory parameters were recorded before, during and immediately after the treatment. The study was discontinued because of beneficial therapeutic effects of MWT. Patients from group I (n=4) reported significant pain relief and reduced joint stiffness during and after the course of therapy. Patients from group II (n=4) revealed no improvement during the study. Patients from group III reported the changes of pain and joint stiffness only after real MW sessions. After further large-scale clinical investigations MWT may become a non-invasive adjunct in therapy of patients with RA.

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2003 Mar;38(2):89-92.

Effect of millimeter therapy in burning mouth syndrome,

[Article in Chinese]

He Y, Lin M, Li BQ, Xia J, Zeng GM.

Department of Oral Medicine, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To observe the millimeter wave therapy responses in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

METHODS: Eighty patients were randomized divided into 4 groups. The first group was treated with both millimeter wave irradiation and routine medication, the second group with millimeter wave irradiation, the third with pretending millimeter wave irradiation and routine medication and the fourth with routine medication. Pain, extravasated blood level and autonomic nerve system condition were double-blindly evaluated either before or after the treatment.

RESULTS: Statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was found as the degree of pain was compared before and after treatment of all the 4 groups. The first and second group, which were affected by the millimeter wave irradiation, had obvious improvements in the extravasated blood level and autonomic nerve system condition (P < 0.05). When the 4 groups were compared with each other, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the first and the fourth groups, and the second and the fourth groups regarding the reduction of pain. According to extravasated blood level, significant differences (P < 0.05) were found in the first and third or fourth groups, the second and third or fourth groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The irradiation of holographic point by millimeter wave can improve the patients’ pain, extravasated blood level and autonomic nerve system condition. It might provide a new treatment method for burning mouth syndrome.

Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2001 Dec;19(6):366-8.

A study of millimeter wave’s clinical and immunological effects on oral lichen planus patients.

[Article in Chinese]

Jin Z, Lin M, Xia J, Zhuang J, Yang R, Li X, He Y.

Dental Center of Shengzhen People’s Hospital.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to observe clinical effects of the millimeter wave on oral lichen planus (OLP) and its immune mechanisms.

METHODS: 30 patients with OLP were randomized into the millimeter wave group and the control group. 15 patients in the millimeter wave group were treated with millimeter wave (7.1 mm, 43 GHz, 10 mW/cm2) radiation, while the other 15 patients in the control group were just given soothing treatment. Either before or after the therapy procedure, the clinical manifestations and the T-cell sub-grouping in the peripheral circulation of each patient were double-blindly evaluated.

RESULTS: The pain-soothing effect in the patients treated with millimeter wave was much more obvious than that of the control group (P < 0.01). The peripheral blood CD8+ percent of millimeter wave group decreased greatly (P < 0.05), while no obvious CD8+ change was observed in the control group (P > 0.05). The millimeter wave group’s CD4+/CD8+ improvement was also much more obvious than that of the control group (P < 0.05), and its CD4+/CD8+ ratio was completely recovered to the normal level.

CONCLUSION: Millimeter wave can effectively relieve OLP patients’ pain, and can regulate OLP patients’ cellular immune condition. Millimeter wave might provide a new treatment method for OLP.

Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 2001;26(1-2):37-40.

Long-lasting (fatiguing) activity of isolated muscle fibres influenced by microwave electromagnetic field.

Radicheva N, Mileva K, Georgieva B, Kristev I.

Institute of Biophysics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia. ninar@bio.bas.bg

Abstract

The study aims to clarify the effect of exposure to microwave electromagnetic field (MMW) on muscle fibre fatigue. Repetitive stimulation with interstimulus interval of 200 ms was applied on isolated frog muscle fibre to evoke intracellular action potentials and twitch contractions. After their recording muscle fibre preparation was moved in a Petri dish with radius of 28 mm on open air for one hour exposure to continuous MMW with frequency of 2.45 GHz and power density of 20 mW/cm2. Then it was again moved in the chamber with non irradiated Ringer’s solution at controlled temperature for the repeated records. After MMW exposure the changes in amplitude and time parameters characterizing fatigue were attenuated and delayed vs. controls. The twitch amplitude curve described an drastic fall in the first 5 sec followed by an increase and next decrease. MMW (2.45 GHz) have a specific, non-thermal influence on muscle fibre activity resulting in some resistance to fatigue.

Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2001;29(5-6):613-21.

Millimeter waves in the treatment of neurological manifestations of vertebral osteochondrosis.

Miryutova NF, Levitskii EF, Kozhemyakin AM, Mavlyautdinova IM.

Research Institute of Balneology and Physiotherapy, Moscow, Russia.

Abstract

A new millimeter-wave therapeutic technique, which combines pulsed electromagnetic radiation with noise, was developed. This technique produces analgesic and trophic effects, and it also produces an effect on the functional activity of electrically excitable regions of nerve fibers. It can therefore be employed for treating affected nerves and muscles. Hence, it may broaden the range of optimal combinations of biotropic parameters of millimeter-wave methods used in neurological practice.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2000 Jul-Aug;(4):7-11.

Pain relief by low-intensity frequency-modulated millimeter waves acting on the acupuncture points.

[Article in Russian]

Samosiuk IZ, Kulikovich IuN, Tamarova ZA, Samosiuk NI, Kazhanova AK.

Abstract

Analgetic effect of low-intensive frequency-modulated millimetric waves (MW) was studied in mice with formalin induced nociceptive behavior reaction (licking of defeat hindpaw). MW were applied to the acupoint E 36 of the defeat hindpaw. The following MW were used: 60 GHz (1) and 118 GHz (2) which were modulated by 4 Hz; noise MW within the range of 42-95 GHz (3) and 90-140 GHz (4) which were modulated in accidental order by frequencies 1-60 Hz; combinations of fixed frequencies with noise – 60 GHz + noise 42-95 GHz (5) and 118 GHz + noise 90-140 GHz (6). All used MW combinations suppressed licking of the defeat hindpaw and increased duration of sleep and eating. The strongest analgesia was achieved in series 1-3 (42.4-69.7%), the weakest in series 6 and 4 of the experiment (12.2-19.7%).

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2000 May-Jun;(3):9-11.

The use of low-frequency magnetotherapy and EHF puncture in the combined treatment of arterial hypertension in vibration-induced disease.

[Article in Russian]

Drobyshev VA, Filippova GN, Loseva MI, Shpagina LA, Shelepova NV, Zhelezniak MS.

Abstract

Combination of EHF therapy + magnetotherapy + drugs results in faster and persistent hypotensive and analgetic effect compared to standard drug therapy, potentiates action of vascular drugs on cerebral and peripheral circulation, reduces dose of hypotensive drugs in patients with arterial hypertension and vibration disease.

Int J Radiat Biol. 2000 Apr;76(4):575-9.

Pain relief caused by millimeter waves in mice: results of cold water tail flick tests.

Rojavin MA, Radzievsky AA, Cowan A, Ziskin MC.

Richard J Fox Center for Biomedical Physics, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE: To find out if millimeter waves can decrease experimental pain response in mice using cold water tail flick test.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Swiss albino mice (15 mice per group) were exposed to continuous millimeter waves at a frequency of 61.22 GHz with incident power densities (IPD) ranging from 0.15 to 5.0 mW/cm2 for 15 min or sham exposed. Latency of tail withdrawal in a cold water (1 +/- 0.5 degrees C) tail flick test was measured before the exposure (baseline) and then four times after the exposure with 15 min breaks.

RESULTS: The mean latency of the tail flick response in mice exposed to millimeter waves was more than twice that of sham-exposed controls (p<0.05). This effect was proportional to the power of millimeter waves and completely disappeared at an IPD level of < or = 0.5 mW/cm2. Pretreatment of mice with the opioid antagonist naloxone (1 mg/kg i.p.) blocked the effect of millimeter waves.

CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the antinociceptive effect of millimeter waves is mediated through endogenous opioids.

Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2000;28(1-2):339-47.

The use of millimeter wavelength electromagnetic waves in cardiology.

Lebedeva AYu.

2nd Department of urgent cardiology at State Clinical Hospital, Russian State Medical University, Moscow.

Abstract

This paper concerns the problems of the use of millimeter wavelength electromagnetic waves for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The prospects for this use are considered.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1998 Sep-Oct;(5):5-7.

The comparative characteristics of the clinico-physiological action of electromagnetic radiation in the milli- and nanometer ranges in hypertension.

[Article in Russian]

Kunitsyna LA, Bezruchenko SV, Bogdanov NN, Tsarev AIu, Sokolov BA, Arkhangel’ski? VV.

Abstract

The sinocarotid zone (SCZ) of 127 patients with essential hypertension (EH) stage I and II was exposed to electromagnetic millimetric and nanometric waves. Differentiated indications for laser and short-wave-frequency therapy on SCZ in EH have been formulated basing on the postexposure changes in blood pressure, main complaints, central and cerebral hemodynamics, lipid metabolism, blood coagulation.

Bioelectromagnetics. 1998;19(7):393-413.

Current state and implications of research on biological effects of millimeter waves: a review of the literature.

Pakhomov AG, Akyel Y, Pakhomova ON, Stuck BE, Murphy MR.

McKesson BioServices, Brooks Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas 78235-5324, USA. andrei.pakhomov@aloer.brooks.af.mil

Abstract

In recent years, research into biological and medical effects of millimeter waves (MMW) has expanded greatly. This paper analyzes general trends in the area and briefly reviews the most significant publications, proceeding from cell-free systems, dosimetry, and spectroscopy issues through cultured cells and isolated organs to animals and humans. The studies reviewed demonstrate effects of low-intensity MMW (10 mW/cm2 and less) on cell growth and proliferation, activity of enzymes, state of cell genetic apparatus, function of excitable membranes, peripheral receptors, and other biological systems. In animals and humans, local MMW exposure stimulated tissue repair and regeneration, alleviated stress reactions, and facilitated recovery in a wide range of diseases (MMW therapy). Many reported MMW effects could not be readily explained by temperature changes during irradiation. The paper outlines some problems and uncertainties in the MMW research area, identifies tasks for future studies, and discusses possible implications for development of exposure safety criteria and guidelines.

Int J Radiat Biol. 1997 Oct;72(4):475-80.

Electromagnetic millimeter waves increase the duration of anaesthesia caused by ketamine and chloral hydrate in mice.

Rojavin MA, Ziskin MC.

Richard J. Fox Center for Biomedical Physics, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.

Abstract

BALB/c mice were injected i.p. with either ketamine 80 mg/kg or chloral hydrate 450 mg/kg. Anaesthetized mice were exposed to unmodulated electromagnetic millimeter waves at the frequency of 61.22 GHz with a peak specific absorption rate of 420 W/kg and corresponding incident power density of 15 mW/cm2 for 15 min or sham-exposed. In combination with either of the anaesthetics used, mm waves increased the duration of anaesthesia by approximately 50% (p < 0.05) in a dose (power)-dependent manner. Sham exposure to mm waves did not affect the sleeping time of mice. Pretreatment of mice with naloxone, an opioid antagonist, did not change the duration of anaesthesia caused by the corresponding chemical agent, but completely blocked or decreased the additional effect of mm waves. The data in this study indicates that exposure of mice to mm waves in vivo releases endogenous opioids or enhances the activity of opioid signalling pathway.

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1997 May;17(5):286-8.

Effect of acupoint irradiation with Q-wave millimeter microwave on peripheral white blood cells in post-operational treatment with chemotherapy in stomach and colorectal cancer patients.

[Article in Chinese]

Wu JG, Huang WZ, Wu BY.

Oncology Department of Second Ningde District Hospital, Fujian.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To explore the biological effect of Q-wave millimeter microwave (QWMM).

METHODS: The QWMM was used to irradiate the acupoints Xuehai (Sp10) and Geshu (B17) in treating post-operational and chemotherapy treated stomach cancer and colorectal cancer patients. The effect of irradiation on chemotherapy affected peripheral white blood cells was observed. 62 cases (stomach cancer 42, colorectal cancer 20) in total were divided into two groups: group A, 21 cases (stomach cancer 15, colorectal cancer 6) the irradiation began 10 days after operation, and on the 16th day the chemotherapy combined with irradiation started. Group B had 41 cases (stomach cancer 27, colorectal cancer 14), in which the irradiation began immediately after the occurrence of chemotherapy induced peripheral WBC reduction, which persisted for at least 12 days.

RESULTS: The effective rate for the group A and B was 85.7% (18/21) and 73.2% (30/41) respectively. The total effective rate of the two groups was 77.4% (48/62). The effective rate of group A was significantly higher than that of group B, P < 0.01.

CONCLUSION: GWMM irradiation at acupoints could promote the hematopoietic function of bone marrow, and the irradiation performed 1 week before chemotherapy yielded even better protection on bone marrow.

Bioelectromagnetics. 1997;18(4):324-34.

Search for frequency-specific effects of millimeter-wave radiation on isolated nerve function.

Pakhomov AG, Prol HK, Mathur SP, Akyel Y, Campbell CB.

Microwave Bioeffects Branch, U.S. Army Medical Research Detachment of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Brooks Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas 78235-5324, USA.

Abstract

Effects of a short-term exposure to millimeter waves (CW, 40-52 GHz, 0.24-3.0 mW/cm2) on the compound action potential (CAP) conduction were studied in an isolated frog sciatic nerve preparation. CAPs were evoked by either a low-rate or a high-rate electrical stimulation of the nerve (4 and 20 paired pulses/s, respectively). The low-rate stimulation did not alter the functional state of the nerve, and the amplitude, latency, and peak latency of CAPs could stay virtually stable for hours. Microwave irradiation for 10-60 min at 0.24-1.5 mW/cm2, either at various constant frequencies or with a stepwise frequency change (0.1 or 0.01 GHz/min), did not cause any detectable changes in CAP conduction or nerve refractoriness. The effect observed under irradiation at a higher field intensity of 2-3 mW/cm2 was a subtle and transient reduction of CAP latency and peak latency along with a rise of the test CAP amplitude. These changes could be evoked by any tested frequency of the radiation; they reversed shortly after cessation of exposure and were both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the effect of conventional heating of 0.3-0.4 degree C. The high-rate electrical stimulation caused gradual and reversible decrease of the amplitude of conditioning and test CAPs and increased their latencies and peak latencies. These changes were essentially the same with and without irradiation (2.0-2.7 or 0.24-0.28 mW/cm2), except for attenuation of the decrease of the test CAP amplitude. This effect was observed at both field intensities, but was statistically significant only for certain frequencies of the radiation. Within the studied limits, this effect appeared to be dependent on the frequency rather than on the intensity of the radiation, but this observation requires additional experimental confirmation.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1996 Sep-Oct;(5):3-5.

The UHF therapy of hypertension patients

[Article in Russian]

Sorokina EI, L’vova NV.

Abstract

Ninety-three patients with stages I-II essential hypertension treated with microwave electromagnetic fields (460 MHz) with collar exposure were studied. Microwave therapy was found to produce an antihypertensive effect in 74%, chiefly by lowering the increased cardiac output, to improve blood pressure responses to exercises, to make catecholamine excretion normal and coronary and cerebral circulation better.

Neuroscience. 1995 May;66(1):15-7.

Reception of low-intensity millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation by the electroreceptors in skates.

Akoev GN, Avelev VD, Semenjkov PG.

Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

Abstract

Low intensity millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation of less than 10 mW cm-2 power intensity has a nonthermal effect on the body and it is widely used in medical practice for treatment of various diseases. Nevertheless, the effect of EMR on biological tissues is not understood. The skin and its sensory receptors are considered to be responsible for EMR reception, but this has yet to be confirmed. The present experiments were designed to study the effect of millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation on the ampullae of Lorenzini in skates, which are very sensitive to weak electrical stimuli at low frequency. Reception of low-intensity millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation at 37-55 GHz by the electroreceptors (ampullae of Lorenzini) in the skate has been shown. At a power intensity of 1-5 mW cm-2 irradiating the duct opening at 1-20 mm distance caused a transient increase in the firing rate of a single afferent unit. When the power intensity was increased inhibitory responses were also observed. Some receptors responded with a prolonged excitatory activity lasting up to 30 min to the irradiation of the duct opening. Direct irradiation of the sensory cells produced only an inhibition, probably due to a rise in temperature. It is proposed that millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation generates a d.c. potential at the vicinity of duct opening which can be detected by the electroreceptors.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1995 Mar-Apr;(2):25-6.

The mechanism of the therapeutic action of the EHF therapy of spinal osteochondrosis.

[Article in Russian]

Droviannikova DP, Volobuev AN, Romanchuk PI.

Abstract

Microwave therapy (millimetric waves) was used for treatment of spinal osteochondrosis. The effect was manifest as early as the first sessions. The pain alleviated, muscular tension decreased, movements recovered, convulsions and numbness of the legs ceased. Possible biophysical mechanisms of EHF waves are discussed.

Lik Sprava. 1994 Jan;(1):83-5.

The results of treating gastric and duodenal peptic ulcer by using the millimeter-range wavelength.

[Article in Russian]

Vinogradov VG, Kisel’ LK, Mager NV.

Abstract

Complex treatment of peptic ulcer with drugs and millimeter electromagnetic waves (MEW) allows to shorten stay in hospital by 2 weeks. Ambulatory MEW therapy may be effective even if used without any drugs, especially in young patients with fresh ulcer. Thus, MEW treatment is recommended by the authors to be widely applied for the treatment of peptic ulcer both in hospital and out-patient departments.

Lik Sprava. 1992 Oct;(10):32-5.

A comparative evaluation of the efficacy of quantum methods for treating hypertension patients.

[Article in Ukrainian]

Nykul TD, Karpenko VV, Vo?tovych NS, Karmazyna OM.

Abstract

A study is presented of the effect of laser and microwave resonance therapy on the hemodynamics and hemorheology in 56 patients with hypertensive disease. The hypotensive effect of intravascular laser therapy is related to the positive changes, reduction of blood viscosity and general peripheral vascular resistance. The effect of low molecular electromagnetic radiation on acupuncture points favoured clear reduction of peripheral vessel resistance. Combination of laser and microwave resonance therapy produces a positive effect due to potentiation of these methods and, thus, influencing the systems of hemodynamics, hemostasis and hemorheology.

Lik Sprava. 1992 Aug;(8):36-8.

The local treatment of patients with a duodenal ulcer with millimeter-range electromagnetic radiation.

[Article in Ukrainian]

Zly? MV, Netiazhenko VZ, Zly? VV.

Abstract

A technique was designed for the treatment of duodenal ulcer patients by electromagnetic radiation of the millimeter range (ERMR); 30 patients were treated by this method, while 50 patients received traditional therapy; other patients were treated by lasers, cithemidin. Endoscopic ERMR treatment in combination with drugs was more effective than other methods.

Vrach Delo. 1991 May;(5):59-61.

The effect of hypnotic suggestion and millimeter-range electromagnetic radiation on the clinical and endoscopic indices in peptic ulcer patients.

[Article in Russian]

Nikula TD, Kan EB.

Abstract

The authors studied the effect of microwave resonance therapy, hypnosuggestion and their combinations on the dynamics of clinico-endoscopic indices in 182 patients with duodenal ulcer. It was established that these methods were highly effective allowing to control rapidly the pain syndrome, to achieve complete healing of the ulcer in 70-95% of cases within 14.8-16.7 days. The results were best when the two methods were combined.

Vrach Delo. 1990 May;(5):6-9.

The use of millimeter-range electromagnetic radiation for treating peptic ulcer.

[Article in Russian]

Dogotar’ VB, Tkach SM, Perederi? VG, Kuzenko IuG.

Abstract

The efficacy was studied of treatment of ulcer disease by means of microwave resonance radiation. It was established that this method of treatment has advantages over traditional drug therapy in patients harbouring the ulcer in the duodenum. The authors describe contraindications to the use of this method, determine the duration of treatment.

Int J Radiat Biol Relat Stud Phys Chem Med. 1986 Nov;50(5):761-87.

The effects of low-level radiofrequency and microwave radiation on brain tissue and animal behaviour.

Blackwell RP, Saunders RD.

Abstract

There has been much public interest and controversy about the effects of exposure to low levels of microwave and radiofrequency radiation. Of particular interest are reports of radiation-induced changes in brain tissue and animal behaviour. This review considers the evidence supporting some of these effects. The main conclusions of the review are: The levels of tracer substances in the brain tissue of conscious or anaesthetized animals can be altered by acute exposure to microwave radiation that is sufficient to raise the brain temperature by several degrees Celsius. However, the results of such experiments are difficult to interpret, being in some cases contradictory or influenced by various confounding factors, and the data cannot be considered sufficient to recommend a threshold for human tolerance. The evidence that calcium ion exchange in living nervous tissues is affected by amplitude-modulated radiofrequency and microwave radiation is inconclusive. Exposure sufficient to cause an increase in core temperature of about 1 degree C, corresponding to specific energy absorption rates of about 2-8 W kg-1 may adversely affect animal behaviour.

Bioelectromagnetics. 1985;6(1):89-97.

Effects of continuous-wave, pulsed, and sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated microwaves on brain energy metabolism.

Sanders AP, Joines WT, Allis JW.

Abstract

A comparison of the effects of continuous-wave, sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated, and pulsed square-wave-modulated 591-MHz microwave exposures on brain energy metabolism was made in male Sprague-Dawley rats (175-225 g). Brain NADH fluorescence, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration, and creatine phosphate (CP) concentration were determined as a function of modulation frequency. Brain temperatures of animals were maintained between -0.1 and -0.4 degrees C from the preexposure temperature when subjected to as much as 20 mW/cm2 (average power) CW, pulsed, or sinusoidal-amplitude modulated 591-MHz radiation for 5 min. Sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated exposures at 16-24 Hz showed a trend toward preferential modulation frequency response in inducing an increase in brain NADH fluorescence. The pulse-modulated and sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated (16 Hz) microwaves were not significantly different from CW exposures in inducing increased brain NADH fluorescence and decreased ATP and CP concentrations. When the pulse-modulation frequency was decreased from 500 to 250 pulses per second the average incident power density threshold for inducing an increase in brain NADH fluorescence increased by a factor of 4–ie, from about 0.45 to about 1.85 mW/cm2. Since brain temperature did not increase, the microwave-induced increase in brain NADH and decrease in ATP and CP concentrations was not due to hyperthermia. This suggests a direct interaction mechanism and is consistent with the hypothesis of microwave inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport chain function of ATP production.

Bioelectromagnetics. 1984;5(4):419-33.

The differential effects of 200, 591, and 2,450 MHz radiation on rat brain energy metabolism.

Sanders AP, Joines WT, Allis JW.

Abstract

Three key compounds in brain energy metabolism have been measured during and after exposure to continuous wave radiofrequency radiation at 200, 591, and 2,450 MHz. Frequency-dependent changes have been found for all three compounds. Changes in NADH fluorescence have been measured on the surface of a surgically uncovered rat brain during exposure. At 200 and 591 MHz, NADH fluorescence increased in a dose-dependent manner between approximately 1 and 10 mW/cm2, then became constant at higher exposures. There was no effect at 2,450 MHz. Levels of ATP and CP were measured in whole brain after exposure. The ATP levels were decreased at 200 and 591 MHz but not at 2,450 MHz. The CP levels decreased only at 591 MHz. The effect of duration of exposure (up to 5 min) was investigated for all compounds at 200 MHz and 2,450 MHz, and exposures to 20 minutes were examined at 591 MHz. Temperature in the rat brain was essentially constant for all exposures. A general mechanism for inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and the CP-kinase reaction pathway by radiofrequency radiation has been proposed.

Neurobehav Toxicol. 1980 Spring;2(1):49-58.

Behavioral effects of microwaves.

Stern S.

Abstract

Microwaves can produce sensations of warmth and sound in humans. In other species, they also can serve as cues, they may be avoided, and they can disrupt ongoing behavior. These actions appear to be due to heat produced by energy absorption. The rate of absorption depends on the microwave parameters and the electrical and geometric properties of the subject. We, therefore, cannot predict the human response to microwaves based on data from other animals without appropriate scaling considerations. At low levels of exposure, microwaves can produce changes in behavior without large, or even measureable, changes in body temperature. Thermoregulatory behavior may respond to those low levels of heat, and thereby affect other behavior occurring concurrently. There are no data that demonstrate that behavioral effects of microwaves depend on any mechanism other than reactions to heat. Our interpretation of whether a reported behavioral effect indicates that microwaves may be hazardous depends on our having a complete description of the experiment and on our criteria of behavioral toxicity.

Physiol Chem Phys. 1978;10(5):387-98.

Low power radio-frequency and microwave effects on human electroencephalogram and behavior.

Bise W.

Abstract

In a pilot study of ten human subjects, temporary changes in brain waves and behavior were seen on exposure to power densities lower than 10(-12) W/cm2, which is substantially below typical urban levels. Frequencies included .1 to 960 MHz continuous and 8.5 to 9.6 GHz pulse-modulated waves. Since the relaxation frequency of protein-bound water is considered to fall between 100 and 1,000 MHz, absorptions and quantum effects may be the mechanistic basis for the electroencephalogram changes observed in most of the subjects produced by 10(-15) W/cm2 cw radio-frequency energy of between 130 and 960 MHz. Constructive and destructive interference patterns from standing waves within the skull possibly interact with the bioelectric generators in the brain, since electroencephalogram wave amplitudes and frequencies increased or decreased respectively at different radio wavelengths.