Endocrine Effects

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2009 Sep-Oct;(5):30-3.

Transcranial magneto- and electrostimulation in patients with obesity and erectile dysfunction.

[Article in Russian]

Ponomarenko GN, Bin’iash TG, Ra?gorodski? IuM, Guliaev AS, Shul’diakov VA, Kiriliuk AM, Vartanova LIu.

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to evaluate therapeutic efficiency of transcranial magnetotherapy (TcMT) and electric stimulation (ES) included in the combined treatment of 143 patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and abdominal obesity. The majority of the patients had waist circumference over 102 cm. An AMO-ATOS complex was used to stimulate the hypothalamic region and other brain structures. Transdermal myostimulation of the abdominal and femoral regions was achieved with a Miovolna device. It was shown that both TcM and ES improved lipid metabolism and erectile function; moreover, they exerted hypotensive and sedative action. Specifically, the testosterone level in the patients increased by a mean of 27% compared with the pre-treatment values while the number of patients complaining of erectile dysfunction decreased by 31%.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2004 Jun;25(3):201-6.

The influence of chronic exposure to low frequency pulsating magnetic fields on concentrations of FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone and estradiol in men with back pain.

Woldanska-Okonska M, Karasek M, Czernicki J.

Swietokrzyska Academy, Piotrkow Branch, Poland.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: There is widespread public concern that electromagnetic fields might be hazardous. However, studies on the biological effects of magnetic fields (MFs) have not always been consistent. Influence of extremely-low frequency MFs used in physiotherapy on endocrine system was rarely examined. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the concentrations of some pituitary (FSH, LH, prolactin) and sex (testosterone, estradiol) hormones in men with back pain exposed to magnetic fields applied during magnetotherapy or magnetostimulation over the period of three weeks.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed on 20 men aged 28-62 years (mean+/-SEM: 46.4+/-2.0 years) suffering from chronic low back pain who underwent magnetotherapy (10 patients, mean age+/-SEM: 48.4 years, range: 28-62 years) or subjected to magnetostimulation (10 patients, mean age+/-SEM: 44.3 years, range: 34-52 years) for 15 days (daily at 10:00 h, with weekend breaks). Blood samples were collected at 08:00 before magnetic field application, one day and one month following the application. Concentrations of hormones were measured by micromethod of chemiluminescence.

RESULTS: Both magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation lowered levels of prolactin. The levels of LH decreased significantly one month after magnetotherapy in comparison with the baseline whereas following magnetostimulation slight but insignificant increase was observed. Estradiol concentrations were significantly lower one day and one month following magnetosimulation in comparison to the baseline and did not change after magnetotherapy. No statistically significant changes were observed in levels of FSH and testosterone after either magnetotherapy or magnetosimulation at any time examined.

CONCLUSION: Magnetic fields applied in physiotherapy exert no or very subtle effect on concentrations of FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone, and estradiol in men.

Life Sci. 2003 Oct 31;73(24):3073-82.

Evaluation of the nocturnal levels of urinary biogenic amines in men exposed overnight to 50-Hz magnetic field.

Selmaoui B, Aymard N, Lambrozo J, Touitou Y.

Laboratoire de Chronobiologie, 5400 Boulevard Gouin Ouest, Hôpital du Sacré Coeur de Montréal, H4J 1C5, Montréal, Canada.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to magnetic fields might affect human health and to look for possible effects of acute exposure (9 hours) to 50-Hz magnetic fields (10 microT) on the urinary concentration of biogenic amines. Thirty-two young men (20-30 years old) were divided into two groups (sham-exposed and exposed group) of 12 to 16 subjects each. All subjects participated in two 24-hour experiments to evaluate the effects of both continuous and intermittent exposure to magnetic fields. The subjects were exposed to the magnetic field from 2300 to 0800, while lying down. Total urine (from 2300 to 0800) was collected at 0800. The results (expressed as a ratio of biogenic amine excretion to creatinine excretion (nmol/mmol)) did not differ significantly between sham-exposed and exposed men for any of the parameters measured: adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. These results suggest that nocturnal exposure to either continuous or intermittent 50-Hz magnetic fields of 10 microT does not affect, at least under our experimental conditions, the nocturnal excretion of biogenic amines in healthy young men.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003 Jun;284(6):R1529-35.

Magnetic fields and the melatonin hypothesis: a study of workers chronically exposed to 50-Hz magnetic fields.

Touitou Y, Lambrozo J, Camus F, Charbuy H.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine Pitié-Salpêtrière, 75013 Paris, France. touitou@ccr.jussieu.fr

Abstract

Because epidemiological studies report clinical disorders (mainly neurobehavioral alterations and/or cancer) that may be related to diminished melatonin secretion or to changes in its circadian rhythm in subjects living or working in environments exposed to magnetic fields, research on the effects of these fields in humans is particularly important. In this study, we examine the circadian rhythm of melatonin in 15 men exposed chronically and daily for a period of 1-20 yr, in the workplace and at home, to a 50-Hz magnetic field in search of any cumulative effect from those chronic conditions of exposure. The weekly geometric mean of individual exposures ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 microT. The results are compared with those for 15 unexposed men who served as controls (individual exposures ranged from 0.004 to 0.092 microT). Blood samples were taken hourly from 2000 to 0800. Nighttime urine was also collected and analyzed. This work shows that subjects exposed over a long period (up to 20 yr) and on a daily basis to magnetic fields experienced no changes in their plasma melatonin level, their urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin level, or the circadian rhythm of melatonin. Our data strongly suggest that magnetic fields do not have cumulative effects on melatonin secretion in humans and thus clearly rebut the “melatonin hypothesis” that a decrease in plasma melatonin concentration (or a disruption in its secretion) explains the occurrence of clinical disorders or cancers possibly related to magnetic fields.

Med Pr. 2003;54(1):29-32.

Influence of pulsating magnetic field used in magnet therapy and magnet stimulation on cortisol secretion in human.

[Article in Polish]

Wolda?ska-Oko?ska M, Czernicki J.

Oddzia?u Rehabilitacji, Samodzielnego Publicznego Zak?adu Opieki Zdrowotnej w Sieradzu.

Abstract

The aim of our study was to test the influence of magnetic fields during magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation over a longer period of time (like in physiotherapy) on cortisol secretion in humans. The study population was divided into two groups: magnetotherapy group (16 men) and magnetostimulation group (10 men). Magnetotherapy in the form of magnetic field induction (2.9 microT; frequency–40 Hz; square wave; bipolar; Magnetronic MF–10 apparatus) was applied for 20 min to the lumbar area in patients with chronic low back pain. Magnetostimulation (Viofor JPS system; M2P2 program; induction–25-80 microT; frequency–200 Hz, complex saw-like shape with a plateau halfway the height of the wave; bipolar) was applied every day for 12 min in patients with the same health problem. In both groups, the procedures were repeated 15 times (about 10:00 a.m.) with weekend breaks. Serum samples were collected at 6:00, 12:00, 16:00 and 24:00 and estimated by the micromethod of chemiluminescence (DPC Poland; Cat. No. LKC01). The circadian profile of cortisol was determined prior to the application, a day and a month after application. The data were analyzed statistically, using paired and unpaired Student’s test. Magnetotherapy affects the cortisol secretion in the circadian profile by decreasing its level at 16:00 a day after 15 applications, whereas magnetostimulation by increasing its level at 12:00 a month after 15 applications, which may suggest its long-term effect on hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The comparison of the results indicated that a day after magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation, the circadian curves of cortisol secretion differed significantly by about 100%. All hormone oscillations did not exceed the physiological norms of the circadian cortisol level, not reaching the level so high as in an intense stress. This suggests rather their controlling effect on the cortisol level than their significant stressogenic nature.

Bull Acad Natl Med. 2002;186(9):1625-39; discussion 1639-41.

Evaluation of the effect of magnetic fields on the secretion of melatonin in humans and rats. Circadian study.

[Article in French]

Touitou Y, Selmaoui B, Lambrozo J, Auzeby A.

Service de Biochimie Médicale et Biologie Moléculaire, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, 91 Bld de l’Hôpital-75634 Paris. touitou@ccr.jussieu.fr

Abstract

The consequences of electromagnetic exposure on human health are receiving increasing scientific attention and have become the subject of a vigorous public debate. In the present study we evaluated the effects of magnetic field on pineal function in man and rat. Two groups of Wistar male rats were exposed to 50-Hz magnetic fields of either 1, 10 or 100 microT. The first group was exposed for 12 hours and the second for 30 days (18 hours per day). Short-term exposure depressed both pineal NAT activity and nocturnal serum melatonin concentration but only with the highest intensity used (100 microT). Long-term exposure to a magnetic field significantly depressed the nighttime peak of serum melatonin concentration and pineal NAT activity with 10 and 100 microT. Our results show that sinusoidal magnetic fields altered the production of melatonin through an inhibition of pineal NAT activity. Both duration and intensity of exposure played an important role in this effect. In the second step of this study, thirty-two young men (20-30 years old) were divided into two groups (control group, i.e., sham-exposed: 16 subjects; exposed group: 16 subjects). The subjects were exposed to the magnetic field from 23 h to 08 h (i.e. for 9 h) while lying down. In one experiment the exposure was continuous, in the second one, the magnetic field was intermittent. No significant differences were observed between sham-exposed (control) and exposed men for serum melatonin and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. In our last and more recent study, we looked for the circadian rhythm of melatonin in 15 men exposed chronically and daily for a period of 1-20 years, in the workplace and at home, to a 50 Hz (exposure 0.1 to > 0.3 microT) magnetic field. The results are compared to those for 15 unexposed men who served as controls. Blood samples were taken hourly from 2000 to 0800. Nighttime urine was also collected and analyzed. This work shows that subjects exposed over a long period (up to 20 years) and on a daily basis to magnetic fields experienced no changes in their plasma melatonin level, their urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin level, or the circadian rhythm of melatonin. It thus clearly rebuts the “melatonin hypothesis” that a decrease in plasma melatonin concentration–or a disruption in its secretion–explains the occurrence of, clinical disorders or cancers possibly related to magnetic fields.

J Pineal Res. 2000 Sep;29(2):81-5.

Chronic exposure to 25-80-microT, 200-Hz magnetic field does not influence serum melatonin concentrations in patients with low back pain.

Karasek M, Czernicki J, Woldanska-Okonska M, Zylinska K, Swietoslawski J.

Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Chair of Pathomorphology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland. Karasek@psk2.am.lodz.pl

Abstract

There is substantial evidence that magnetic field (MF) exposure influences melatonin secretion in animals. However, data on its influence on human melatonin levels are scarce, and seemingly contradictory. Because of its many beneficial effects, very low-frequency MF exposure is used in physiotherapy of some neurological diseases and overloading syndromes of the locomotor system. In previous studies, we observed a decrease in human serum melatonin nocturnal concentrations after exposure to MF (2.9 mT, 40 Hz), and we suggested that differences among various studies may depend on different characteristics of the applied MF. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether or not MF of different parameters exerts the same effect. The study was performed in seven men (mean age: 36.7 +/- 3.8 years; range: 32-42) suffering from low back pain. Patients were exposed to a pulsating MF (induction: 25 80 microT; frequency: 200 Hz, modulated, automatically programmed; complex saw-like impulse shape; bipolar) generated by a Quatronic MRS 2000 apparatus (“magnetic bed”) for 3 wk (5 days/wk, twice a day at 08:00 and 13:00 hr for 8 min each), applied to the whole body in patients laying in a horizontal position. The study was performed in spring. Diurnal serum melatonin profiles were estimated 1 day before exposure to MF (baseline), and 1 day and 1 month after the last exposure. No changes in melatonin concentrations were observed either after 1 day or after 1 month following the exposure in comparison to baseline.

J Pineal Res. 1998 Dec;25(4):240-4.

Chronic exposure to 2.9 mT, 40 Hz magnetic field reduces melatonin concentrations in humans.

Karasek M, Woldanska-Okonska M, Czernicki J, Zylinska K, Swietoslawski J.

Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Medical University of Lodz, Poland. Micha.7497401@pharmanet.com.pl

Abstract

Diurnal rhythm of serum melatonin concentrations was estimated in 12 men with low back pain syndrome before and after exposure to a very low-frequency magnetic field (2.9 mT, 40 Hz, square wave, bipolar). Patients were exposed to the magnetic field for 3 weeks (20 min per day, 5 days per week) either in the morning (at 10:00 hr) or in the late afternoon (at 18:00 hr). Significant depression in nocturnal melatonin rise was observed regardless of the time of exposure. This phenomenon was characteristic for all the subjects, although the percent of inhibition of melatonin secretion varied among the studied individuals.

Life Sci. 1997;61(5):473-86.

Endocrine functions in young men exposed for one night to a 50-Hz magnetic field. A circadian study of pituitary, thyroid and adrenocortical hormones.

Selmaoui B, Lambrozo J, Touitou Y.

Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Service de Biochimie Médicale, Paris, France.

Abstract

In recent years, some epidemiologic studies have suggested that extremely low frequency magnetic and electric fields might affect human health, and, in particular, that the incidence of certain types of cancer, depression, and miscarriage might increase among individuals living or working in environments exposed to such fields. Work in our laboratory studies whether and how changes in the electromagnetic environment might affect human health. The study presented here was designed to look for possible effects of acute exposure to 50-Hz linearly polarized magnetic fields (10 microT) on the hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes. Thirty-two young men (20-30 years old) were divided into two groups (sham-exposed or control group, and exposed group) of 16 subjects each. All subjects participated in two 24-hour experiments to evaluate the effects of both continuous and intermittent (one hour “off” and one hour “on” with the field switched “on” and “off” every 15 seconds) exposure to linearly polarized magnetic fields. The subjects were exposed to the magnetic field (generated by three Helmholtz coils per bed) from 2300 to 0800 while recumbent. Blood samples were collected during each session at 3 hour intervals from 1100 to 2000 and hourly from 2200 to 0800. Total urine was collected every 3 hours from 0800 to 2300 and then again at 0800. No significant differences were observed between sham-exposed and exposed men for any of the parameters measured: thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, thyroxine-binding globulin, cortisol, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OH-CS) and TBK. These results suggest that acute exposure to either continuous or intermittent 50-Hz linearly polarized magnetic fields of 10 microT does not affect, at least under our experimental conditions, these endocrine functions or their circadian rhythmicity in healthy young men.

Life Sci. 1996;58(18):1539-49.

Magnetic fields and pineal function in humans: evaluation of nocturnal acute exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields on serum melatonin and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin circadian rhythms.

Selmaoui B, Lambrozo J, Touitou Y.

Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtriere, Service de Biochimie Médicale, Paris, France.

Abstract

Exposure to a 50/60-Hz electromagnetic field can decrease the nocturnal production of melatonin in rodents. Melatonin is considered to be a marker of circadian rhythms, and abnormalities in its secretion are associated with clinical disorders, including fatigue, sleep disruption, mood swings, impaired performance, and depression, which are consequences of desynchronisation. Interestingly, some epidemiological studies have been reported finding most of these clinical disorders in individuals living or working in an environment exposed to electromagnetic fields. This experiment was designed to look for the possible effects of acute exposure (9 hours) to 50-Hz linearly polarized magnetic fields (10 mu T) on the pineal function. Thirty-two young men (20-30 years old) were divided into two groups (control group, i.e., sham-exposed: 16 subjects; exposed group: 16 subjects). All subjects participated in two 24-hour experiments to evaluate the effects of both continuous and intermittent exposure to linearly polarized magnetic fields. They were synchronized with a diurnal activity from 08:00 to 23:00 and nocturnal rest. The experiment lasted two months (mid-February to mid-April). The subjects were exposed to the magnetic fields (generated by three Helmholtz coils per bed) from 23:00 to 08:00, while lying down. Blood samples were collected during each session at 3-hour intervals from 11:00 to 20:00 and hourly from 22:00 to 08:00. Total urine was collected every 3 hours from 08:00 to 23:00 and once during the night, from 23:00 to 08:00. The levels of serum melatonin and its metabolite in urine (6-sulfatoxymelatonin) in exposed men did not differ significantly from those in control (sham-exposed) subjects. This study shows that nocturnal acute exposure to either continuous or intermittent 50-Hz linearly polarized magnetic fields of 10 mu T does not affect melatonin secretion in humans.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1993 Sep-Oct;(5):4-9.

Changes in intracellular regeneration and the indices of endocrine function and cardiac microcirculation in exposure to decimeter waves.

[Article in Russian]

Korolev IuN, Geniatulina MS, Popov VI.

Abstract

An electron-microscopic study of rabbit heart with experimental myocardial infarction revealed that extracardiac exposure to decimetric waves (DW) activated intracellular regeneration in the myocardium. This was associated with enhanced circulation and endocrine activity in the heart. Most pronounced regeneration was registered in adrenal exposure, the effect of the parietal exposure being somewhat less.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1993 Jul-Aug;(4):15-8.

The effect of the sitting of exposure to decimeter-range electromagnetic waves on the function of the hypophyseal-thyroid and adrenal systems in viral hepatitis.

[Article in Russian]

Mavrodi? VM.

Abstract

The author studied time course of changes in the thyroid and adrenal systems as shown by the levels of T3, T4, T3/T4, TTH, hydrocortisone, ACTH in response to exposure to decimetric microwaves (460 MHz, 30 mW/cm2). The microwaves were directed to the area of hepatic, thyroid, adrenal projections and combinations thereof. An optimal effect was achieved at the course exposure of the adrenal projection.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1992 Jul-Aug;(4):9-13.

The combined action of an ultrahigh-frequency electrical field bitemporally and decimeter waves on the thymus area in the combined therapy of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

[Article in Russian]

Sidorov VD, Grigor’eva VD, Pershin SB, Bobkova AS, Korovkina EG.

Abstract

The thymus of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients was exposed to combined action of bitemporal UHF electric field and decimeter waves to study immunomodulating effect of the combination. Biochemical, immunological and endocrinological findings during the patients follow-up gave evidence for conclusion on activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-thymic axis. A response was achieved in RA seronegative variant with concomitant synovitis. This may be due to genetic factors.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1992 Mar-Apr;(2):3-7.

The immunological and hormonal effects of combined exposure to a bitemporal ultrahigh-frequency electrical field and to decimeter waves at different sites.

[Article in Russian]

Sidorov VF, Pershin SB, Frenkel’ ID, Bobkova AS, Korovkina EG.

Abstract

Bitemporal UHF electric field is shown to enhance glucocorticoid adrenal function unlike inhibition of the thyroid function suppressing a primary immune response (PIR) in the productive phase. The combined exposure to bitemporal UHF electric field and decimeter waves of the adrenals doubles glucocorticoid synthesis abolishing the inhibitory action of the UHF therapy on thyroid function resultant in much more suppressed PIR. Both modalities inhibit thymic production. Decimeter waves alone are less effective. The exposure of the thyroid to decimeter waves initiated PIR by 2.5-fold activation of medullar lymphocytes and by a 80% increase in the thymic function. No response was achieved in combined action on the thyroid of the electric field and decimeter waves.