Cardiovascular Disease

Am J Transl Res. 2014; 6(3): 281–290.
Published online May 15, 2014

 

Pulsed electromagnetic field improves cardiac function in response to myocardial infarction

1Department of Gerontology, Xin Hua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Kongjiang Road 1665, Shanghai 200092, China
2Department of Cardiology, Hua Dong Hospital, Fudan University, West Yan’an Road 221, Shanghai 200040, China
3Department of Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsuruma-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan
4Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Zhang-Heng Road 826, Shanghai 201203, China
5National Lab for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yu-Tian Road 500, Shanghai 200083, China
Address correspondence to: Jun-Li Duan, Department of Cardiology, Hua Dong Hospital, Fudan University, West Yan’an Road 221, Shanghai 200040, China. E-mail: moc.361@hxilnujnaud; Dr. Wei Lu, National Lab for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yu-Tian Road 500, Shanghai 200083, China. E-mail: nc.ca.ptis.liam@iewul; Dr. Yi-Zhun Zhu, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Zhang-Heng Road 826, Shanghai 201203, China. E-mail: moc.liamg@uhznuhziy
*Equal contributors.

Author information  Article notes Copyright and License information
Received February 3, 2014; Accepted April 18, 2014.

Introduction

Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern society. Massive loss of cardiac muscle after several ischemic episodes lead to compromised cardiac function, remodeling and low quality life of patients. A growing body of evidence in experimental models of cardiac injury suggests that early re-establishment of blood perfusion to the injured myocardium would restrict infarct expansion, prevent cardiac remodeling and maintain cardiac function [13]. Although several strategies for therapeutic angiogenesis including the delivery of growth factors, gene therapy and stem cell implantation have been investigated, unsolvable theoretical limitations are still remaining [48]. For instance, the limited survival of implanted stem cell, uncontrolled angiogenesis and others [911]. Therefore, a safe, effective and non-invasive treatment for myocardial ischemia may be an ideal approach.

The therapeutic efficacy of various forms of electromagnetic stimulations, including capacitative coupling, direct current, combined magnetic fields, and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF), have been intensely investigated [12]. Among them, extracorporeal PEMF is the most widely tested techniques in the topic of osteanagenesis [13], skin rapture healing [14] and neuronal regeneration [15,16]. Recently, several study also indicated that PEMF exhibited the capability to stimulate angiogenesis and endothelial proliferation [1719], however the detailed mechanism remains modest understood.

In the present study, we investigated whether extracorporeal PEMF therapy was able to rescue ischemic myocardium through inhibiting cardiac apoptosis as well as promoting postnatal neovascularization in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI).

 

 

Material and methods

Animals

Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 250-300 g were provided by Sino-British SIPPR/BK Laboratory Animal (Shanghai, China). Animals were housed with controlled temperature (22-25°C) and lighting (08:00-20:00 light, 20:00-08:00 dark), and free access to tap water and standard rat chow. All the animals in this work received humane care in compliance with institutional guidelines for health and care of experimental animals of Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

 

MI model

All rats (n=36) were subjected to permanent left anterior descending artery ligation to establish MI model. Briefly, left thoracotomy and pericardiectomy were performed, and the hearts were gently exteriorized. Left anterior descending artery was ligated 4 mm below the left atrium with a 5-0 silk suture. The chest wall was then closed and the animals were returned to home cages. MI rats were then randomly divided into PEMF treated and untreated groups.

 

PEMF treatment

PEMF were generated by a commercially available healing device purchased from Biomobie Regenerative Medicine Technology (Shanghai, China). Fields were asymmetric and consisted of 4.5 ms pulses at 30 ± 3 Hz, with a magnetic flux density increasing from 0 to 5 mT in 400 μs. The MI rats were housed in custom-designed cages and exposed to active PEMF for 4 cycles per day (8 minutes for 1 cycle), while the control rats were housed in identical cages with inactive PEMF generator. For in vitro study, culture dishes were directly exposed to PEMF for 1-4 cycles as indicated (8 minutes for 1 cycle, 30 ± 3 Hz, 5 mT).

Echocardiography

Trans-thoracic echocardiographic analysis was performed using an animal specific instrument (VisualSonics, Vevo770; VisualSonicsInc, Toronto, Canada), at postoperative day 7, 14 and 28. Rats were anesthetized with 10% chloral hydrate solution. After shaving the chest, pre-warmed ultrasound transmission gel was applied to the chest and two dimensional-directed M-mode and Doppler echocardiographic studies were carried out. The ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS) were used to assess left ventricular systolic function. All measurements were averaged for consecutive cardiac cycles and triplicated.

 

Capillary density

Capillary density in peri-infarcted zone (PIZ) was determined by anti-CD31 staining (R&D Systems, San Diego, CA, USA). Briefly, 14 days after MI, rats were euthanized and hearts were perfused with a 0.9% NaCl solution followed by 4% solution of paraformaldehyde in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and then dissected and fixed in this solution for 24 h. Next, samples were washed, dehydrated in a graded ethanol series and embedded in paraffin. 5 μm-sections were cut transversely at 200 μm intervals from into 5 slices from the ligation site to the apex. Endothelial capillaries were identified by goat anti-rat antibody of CD31 (5 μg/ml, Becton-Dickinson Biosciences, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA), and followed by a secondary antibody (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). Capillary density was determined by counting of 10 randomly selected fields and is expressed as numbers of capillary/field (×400 magnification) [20,21].

 

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

The concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide (NO) contained in conditional media of cultured HUVECs was measured using ELISA kit purchased from R&D Systems (San Diego, CA, USA). The concentrations of VEGF contained in PIZ was determined by ELISA kits purchased from Raybiotech (Norcross, GA, USA) [22].

 

Western blotting

PIZ tissue and HUVECs were homogenized with ice-cold homogenizing buffer (20 μl/gram tissue, 50 mmol/l Tris-HCl, 150 mmol/l NaCl, 1 mmol/l EDTA, and 0.5 mmol/l Triton X-100, pH 7.4) and protease inhibitor cocktail (5 mM, Roche, Berlin, Germany). Proteins were measured with Pierce BCA Protein Assay Kit (Thermo, Asheville, North Carolina, USA). Hippocampal protein lysates (50 mg/well) were separated using SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Following electrophoresis, the separated proteins were transferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane (Millipore, Billerica, Massachusetts, USA). Subsequently, nonspecific proteins were blocked using blocking buffer (5% nonfat dried milk in T-TBS containing 0.05% Tween 20), followed by incubation with primary rabbit anti-rat antibodies specific for phospho-Akt (p-Akt), total Akt, hypoxic-inducible factor (HIF)-1α (Santa Cruz, California, USA), phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS), total eNOS and β-actin (Cell Signaling Technology, Beverly, MA, USA) overnight at 4°C. Blots were washed four times with 0.1% Tween 20 in PBS and incubated with HRP-conjugated secondary antibody (1/5000; Biochain, Newark, California, USA) for 1 h at room temperature. The bands were visualized using enhanced chemiluminescence method (Bioimaging System; Syngene, Cambridge, UK). Intensity of the tested protein bands was quantified by densitometry.

 

Detection of apoptosis

Heart samples were fixed in 10% formalin and then paraffin embedded at day 14. Then, the hearts were cut into 5-μm sections. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining was carried out using a commercially available kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Promega, Madison, Wisconsin, USA). Nuclei were stained by DAPI (Roche) [23]. Three mid-ventricular sections of each heart (from the apex to the base) were analyzed. Ten fields in the PIZ were randomly selected from each section for the calculation of the percentage of apoptotic nuclei (apoptotic nuclei/total nuclei) and the obtained ratios were averaged for statistical analysis.

 

Isolation of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs)

Circulating EPCs were obtained by cardiac puncture after animals were anesthetized. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs) were then purified by Histopaque-1083 (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) density gradient centrifugation at 400 g for 30 min. The mononuclear layer was then collected and re-suspended in endothelial growth medium-2 (EGM-2, Clonetics, San Diego, CA, USA). Antibodies to the stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) and Flk-1 were used to mark EPC as described before), and the isotype specific conjugated anti-IgG was used as a negative control. Sca-1+ and Flk-1+ cells were gated in the mononuclear cell fraction.

 

EPC migration assay

Migratory activity of PB-EPCs from PEMF-treated and untreated rats was evaluated by a 24-well modified Boyden chamber assay (Transwell, Corning, NY, USA) [24]. After cultured with EGM-2 for 4 days, PB-EPCs were trypsinized and 5×105 cells in 100 μl of EBM-2 with 0.1% BSA in placed in the upper compartments. 50 ng/mL recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, Clonetics) in 600 μL of chemotaxis buffer (serum-free EBM-2, 0.1% BSA) was added to the lower compartment. The chamber was incubated at 37°C for 6 hrs. The cells were then fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Non-migrated cells on the filter’s upper surface were removed using a cotton swab. The numbers of migrated cells were counted in 4 random high-power fields (HPF, ×400 magnification) and averaged for each sample.

 

Tube formation assay

Matrigel-Matrix (BD Biosciences, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, USA) was inserted in the well of a 48-well cell culture plate and a number of 5×104 EPCs or HUVECs were seeded [25].

After incubation in EGM-2, images of tube morphology was taken and tube number was counted at random under four low power fields (magnifications ×40) per sample. Capillary tube branch points were counted in six randomly selected fields per well, and used as an index for tube formation.

 

Cell culture

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, passage 3) were purchased from Clonetics (San Diego, CA, USA) and EGM-2 in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% air. HUVECs were reseeded into plates coated with Matrix gel and stimulated for 1-4 cycles of PEMF stimulation (5.5 mT, 8 minutes per cycle). Supernatant and cell lysates were collected at 24 hrs after reseeding. Additionally, HUVECs-formed vasculature was quantified by calculating its length under microscopic photography 24 hrs after reseeding [26].

 

Statistical analysis

Data are expressed as means ± standard deviation (SD). Student’s t-test was used for statistical analyses. SPSS software version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used. A value of p<0.05 was considered significant.

 

 

Results

PEMF promotes cardiac function after MI

To determine whether PEMF could increase myocardial function in MI rats, echocardiographic studies were carried out at postoperative day 7, 14 and 28. We observed that PEMF had no effects on body weight and heart rates when compared with control group (Table 1). Meanwhile, higher EF and FS values were detected in PEMF-treated rats than control (Figure 1), indicating that PEMF preserves left ventricular contractility after MI damage.

Figure 1

 

 

 

 

 

Echocardiography after PEMF therapy. All rats were subjected to MI and randomly separated to control and PEMF group. The data of (A) ejection fractions and (B) fractional shorting in both groups collected in day 7, 14 and 28. Values are mean ±

 

 

Table 1

 

 

 

Effect of PEMF on cardiac functions of MI rats

 

 

 

PEMF enhances angiogenesis in PIZ

To examine whether the changes in the cardiac function are associated with changes in capillary EC formation, we measured capillary densities of PEMF and control rats in PIZ through anti-CD31 immunofluorescence staining at postoperative day 14. Representative photomicrographs are shown in Figure 2A. Quantitative analyses by counting the CD31+ capillary ECs revealed that PEMF treatment significantly increases capillary densities in PIZ than control rats (Figure 2B). PEMF treatment also increased the protein levels of VEGF and HIF-1α in damaged hearts (Figure 2C and ?and2D),2D), as well as enhancing the phosphorylation of Akt signal pathway in ischemic myocardium at postoperative day 14 (Figure 2E).

Figure 2

 

 

 

Pro-angiogenic effect of PEMF in ischemic myocardium. A: Immunofluorescence staining of CD31-positive cells in the infarct border zone at postoperative day 14 in PEMF-treated and control rats. B: Quantitative analyses of capillary density between 2 groups

 

 

 

Protective effect of PEMF to MI-induced cardiac apoptosis

We evaluated the effect of PEMF on the survival of myocardium in response to hypoxia in vivo at postoperative day 7. The number of TUNEL positive nucleus in PIZ significantly increased in PEMF-treated rats compared with the non-treated ones (Figure 3), indicating that PEMF treatment decreases the susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to hypoxic damage.

Figure 3

 

 

Anti-apoptotic benefit of PEMF in damaged myocardium. A: TUNEL staining for cardiac cell apoptosis (green) and DAPI (blue) for nuclear staining in the border zone 14 days after AMI (×400 magnification). B: Quantitative analysis of the TUNEL-positive

 

 

 

PEMF augments EPC-mediated neovascularization

EPC-mediated neovascularization after myocardial infarction supported their therapeutic potential [27]. Thus, the strategy to amplify EPC abundance and function is an active focus of research. The number of circulating EPCs was identified by stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1)/fetal liver kinase-1 (flk-1) dual positive cells as described. We found that PEMF treatment increased the number of Sca-1+/flk-1+ cells in peripheral blood at postoperative day 7 and 14 (Figure 4A). Additionally, EPCs isolated from PEMF-treated rats exhibited enhanced tube formative capacity and migratory ability when compared with control ones in vitro (Figure 4B and ?and4C),4C), which suggesting that PEMF increases the abundance and regenerative capacity of EPCs.

Figure 4

 

 

PEMF enhanced circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) function in MI Rats. 7 and 14 days after AMI induction, peripheral blood was collected from rats in both groups. A: Quantitative analysis of Sca-1/flk-1 dual positive PB-EPCs isolated from

 

 

 

Pro-angiogenic beneficial of PEMF in vitro

Cultured HUVECs were treated with PEMF stimulation for 1 to 4 cycles and the supernatant and cell lysate were collected. PEMF promoted VEGF and NO releasing from cultured HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner (Figure 5A and ?and5B).5B). Additionally, the phosphorylation of eNOS in HUVECs was also enhanced in response to PEMF following a dose dependent manner (Figure 5C). Finally, the HUVEC-formed tubes were lengthened by PEMF in a dose dependent manner (Figure 6).

Figure 5

 

 

Enhancement of the expression of VEGF and nitric oxide in PEMF-treated HUVECs. PEMF stimulated vascular endothelial growth factors secretion concentration dependently. Bar graph of the concentrations of (A) VEGF and (B) nitric oxide released from HUVECs

 

 

Figure 6

 

 

 

Effects of PEMF on tube formation of cultured HUVECs. Representative images of tube formation in HUVECs by stimulated PEMF for 1-4 cycles and quantitative analysis of tube length formed by PEMF-treated HUVECs. Values are mean ± SEM; n=4. *means

 

 

 

 

Discussion

Major findings of our study are: (1) PEMF prevents cardiomyocytes against hypoxia-induced apoptosis and preserves cardiac systolic function in a rat MI model; (2) PEMF induces angiogenesis and vasculogenesis through activating VEGF-eNOS system and promoting EPCs mobilized to the ischemic myocardium.

We demonstrated that PEMF treatment preserved the cardiac systolic function after MI and prevented cardiac apoptosis. Previous report demonstrated that PEMF treatment activated voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) [28], which is crucial for maintaining cardiac contractility and cell survival [29,30]. Increased intracellular Ca2+produced by PEMF-mediated VGCC activation may lead to increase of NO through the action of eNOS, which is dominant modulator to prevent cardiomyocytes from apoptosis and enhance revascularization in PIZ after MI [31]. Consistent with the previous work, we demonstrated that the HIF-1α/Akt axis was activated in PIZ in PEMF rats. In addition, PEMF induced eNOS phosphorylation in vitro, which is a key molecular served in the survival pathway in both myocardium and endothelial cell lineage [32].

Another possible mechanism in cardiac protecting effect of PEMF is to stimulate neovascularization. Increasing evidence suggests that neovascularization limits infarct expansion and extension, improves cardiac remodeling [1,2]. Recent data demonstrated that PEMF stimulation induced angiogenesis and amplified endothelial cells function [17,20]. Some researchers believe that PEMF induces cellular proliferation, as evidenced by cAMP activation and uptake of tritiated thymidine [33]. In present study, we demonstrated that the capillary density in PIZ was increased after PEMF treatment. Moreover, PEMF therapy triggered the Akt/HIF-1α/VEGF cascade was activated in ischemic myocardium. In in vitro study, we confirmed PEMF-treated HUVECs released more VEGF and NO, which are the key factors response to endothelial proliferation and survival, suggesting that PEMF activates both autocrine and paracrine function of mature endothelial cells. Furthermore, Tepper and colleagues also reported that PEMF stimulated fibroblastic growth factor-2 (FGF-2) releasing and augment angiogenesis [14].

Recent evidence indicates that adult blood vessels may result from not only expansion of existing endothelial cells (angiogenesis), but also the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells or EPCs (vasculogenesis) [24]. We hypothesized that besides mature endothelial cells, PEMF might also act as a stimulator of progenitor (EPC). To confirm the hypothesis, we examined the effect of PEMF on ex vivo angiogenesis. Our data demonstrated the number of Sca-1/flk-1 dual positive EPCs in peripheral blood increased in response to PEMF. Using the well-established Matrigel assay, we demonstrated that PEMF was able to dramatically enhance the tube formative capacity of either EPCs or mature endothelial cells in vitro. PEMF also accelerated the migratory ability of EPCs. Moreover, Goto et al reported that PEMF stimulation up-regulated the expression of angiopoietin-2 and FGF-2 in bone marrow, suggesting PEMF could promote the regenerative capacity of myeloid-derived cells (such as EPCs) in damaged tissue when recruited. From all these findings, we conclude that PEMF sufficiently re-establishes blood supply to the ischemic and hypoxic cardiomyocytes via enhancing both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

In conclusion, our findings indicate that extracorporeal PEMF treatment increases cardiac systolic function through inhibiting cardiac apoptosis and stimulating neovascularization in PIZ. These findings suggest that PEMF deserves further consideration of investigation in its regulation on the signaling pathway and new clinical strategies for ischemic vascular diseases.

 

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Shanghai Science and Technology Committee (11 nm 0503600), the China National Natural Science Foundation (11374213) and Foundation of National Lab for Infrared Physics (200901).

 

 

Disclosure of conflict of interest

The authors have nothing to disclose.

 

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Bioelectromagnetics. 2010 May;31(4):296-301.

Effects of weak static magnetic fields on endothelial cells.

Martino CF, Perea H, Hopfner U, Ferguson VL, Wintermantel E.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, USA. martino@colorado.edu

Abstract

Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been used extensively in bone fracture repairs and wound healing. It is accepted that the induced electric field is the dose metric. The mechanisms of interaction between weak magnetic fields and biological systems present more ambiguity than that of PEMFs since weak electric currents induced by PEMFs are believed to mediate the healing process, which are absent in magnetic fields. The present study examines the response of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to weak static magnetic fields. We investigated proliferation, viability, and the expression of functional parameters such as eNOS, NO, and also gene expression of VEGF under the influence of different doses of weak magnetic fields. Applications of weak magnetic fields in tissue engineering are also discussed. Static magnetic fields may open new venues of research in the field of vascular therapies by promoting endothelial cell growth and by enhancing the healing response of the endothelium.

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007 Nov;101(4):495-502. Epub 2007 Aug 3.

Short-term effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields after physical exercise are dependent on autonomic tone before exposure.

Grote V, Lackner H, Kelz C, Trapp M, Aichinger F, Puff H, Moser M.

Institute of Noninvasive Diagnosis, JOANNEUM RESEARCH, Weiz, Austria.

Abstract

The therapeutic application of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) can accelerate healing after bone fractures and also alleviate pain according to several studies. However, no objective criteria have been available to ensure appropriate magnetic field strength or type of electromagnetic field. Moreover, few studies so far have investigated the physical principles responsible for the impact of electromagnetic fields on the human body. Existing studies have shown that PEMFs influence cell activity, the autonomic nervous system and the blood flow. The aim of this study is to examine the instantaneous and short-term effects of a PEMF therapy and to measure the impact of different electromagnetic field strengths on a range of physiological parameters, especially the autonomic nervous systems, determined by heart rate variability (HRV) as well as their influence on subjects' general feeling of well-being. The study comprised experimental, double-blind laboratory tests during which 32 healthy male adults (age: 38.4+/-6.5 years) underwent four physical stress tests at standardised times followed by exposure to pulsed magnetic fields of varying intensity [HPM, High Performance magnetic field; Leotec; pulsed signal; mean intensity increase: zero (placebo), 0.005, 0.03 and 0.09 T/s]. Exposure to electromagnetic fields after standardised physical effort significantly affected the very low frequency power spectral components of HRV (VLF; an indicator for sympathetically controlled blood flow rhythms). Compared to placebo treatment, exposure to 0.005 T/s resulted in accelerated recovery after physical strain. Subjects with lower baseline VLF power recovered more quickly than subjects with higher VLF when exposed to higher magnetic field strengths. The application of electromagnetic fields had no effect on subjects' general feeling of well-being. Once the magnetic field exposure was stopped, the described effects quickly subsided. PEMF exposure has a short-term dosage-dependent impact on healthy subjects. Exposure to PEMF for 20 min resulted in more rapid recovery of heart rate variability, especially in the very low frequency range after physical strain. The study also showed the moderating influence of the subjects' constitutional VLF power on their response to PEMF treatment. These findings have since been replicated in a clinical study and should be taken into consideration when PEMF treatment is chosen.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2009 Sep-Oct;(5):9-11.

Rehabilitative medical technology for the correction of microcirculatory disorders in patients with arterial hypertension.

[Article in Russian]

Kul'chitskaia DB.

Abstract

The study with the use of laser Doppler flowmetry has revealed pathological changes in the microcirculatory system of patients with arterial hypertension. Their treatment with a low-frequency magnetic field showed that its effect on microcirculation depends on the regime and site of application of magnetotherapy as well as its combination with other physical factors. Frontal application of the magnetic field had the most pronounced beneficial effect on dynamic characteristics of microcirculation. Pulsed regime of magnetotherapy was more efficacious than conventional one. Amplipulse magnetotherapy produced better results than monotherapy.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2007 Jan;28(1):64-8.

A pilot investigation of the effect of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on humans' heart rate variability.

Baldi E, Baldi C, Lithgow BJ.

Diagnostic and Neurosignal Processing Research Group, Electrical & Computer System Engineering, Monash University, Victoria, Australia. Emilio.Baldi@eng.monash.edu.au

Abstract

The question whether pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) can affect the heart rhythm is still controversial. This study investigates the effects on the cardiocirculatory system of ELF-PEMFs. It is a follow-up to an investigation made of the possible therapeutic effect ELF-PEMFs, using a commercially available magneto therapeutic unit, had on soft tissue injury repair in humans. Modulation of heart rate (HR) or heart rate variability (HRV) can be detected from changes in periodicity of the R-R interval and/or from changes in the numbers of heart-beat/min (bpm), however, R-R interval analysis gives only a quantitative insight into HRV. A qualitative understanding of HRV can be obtained considering the power spectral density (PSD) of the R-R intervals Fourier transform. In this study PSD is the investigative tool used, more specifically the low frequency (LF) PSD and high frequency (HF) PSD ratio (LF/HF) which is an indicator of sympatho-vagal balance. To obtain the PSD value, variations of the R-R time intervals were evaluated from a continuously recorded ECG. The results show a HR variation in all the subjects when they are exposed to the same ELF-PEMF. This variation can be detected by observing the change in the sympatho-vagal equilibrium, which is an indicator of modulation of heart activity. Variation of the LF/HF PSD ratio mainly occurs at transition times from exposure to nonexposure, or vice versa. Also of interest are the results obtained during the exposure of one subject to a range of different ELF-PEMFs. This pilot study suggests that a full investigation into the effect of ELF-PEMFs on the cardiovascular system is justified.

Georgian Med News. 2006 Jun;(135):109-13.

Influence of treatment with variable magnetic field of low frequency in low mountain environment on cardiohemodynamic index of patients with arterial hypertension.

[Article in Russian]

Tarkhan-Mouravi ID, Purtseladze NA.

Abstract

Pathological changes in function and action of cardiovascular system is the significant link in formation and progression of arterial hypertension. 68 patients were investigated. From these patients in 32 first stage of mentioned pathology, while in 36 – the II degree was found. It is established that treatment of arterial hypertension by variable magnetic field of low frequency in low mountain environment causes decrease of systolic, diastolic and heart dynamic blood pressure, normalizes heart index and pulse rate; decreases peripheral vascular specific resistance, increases amount of upset index accelerated of blood flow on the region "lung-ear", improves electrocardiological data. Mentioned pathological displacements were more expressed at the first stage of arterial hypertension.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2005 Apr;26(3):161-72.  

Decreased plasma levels of nitric oxide metabolites, angiotensin II, and aldosterone in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to 5 mT static magnetic field.

Okano H, Masuda H, Ohkubo C.

Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, Tokyo 108-8638, Japan. okano@niph.go.jp

Previously, we found that whole body exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) at 10 mT (B(max)) and 25 mT (B(max)) for 2-9 weeks suppressed and delayed blood pressure (BP) elevation in young, stroke resistant, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In this study, we investigated the interrelated antipressor effects of lower field strengths and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NO(x) = NO(2)(-) + NO(3)(-)) in SHR. Seven-week-old male rats were exposed to two different ranges of SMF intensity, 0.3-1.0 mT or 1.5-5.0 mT, for 12 weeks. Three experimental groups of 20 animals each were examined: (1) no exposure with intraperitoneal (ip) saline injection (sham-exposed control); (2) 1 mT SMF exposure with ip saline injection (1 mT); (3) 5 mT SMF exposure with ip saline injection (5 mT). Arterial BP, heart rate (HR), skin blood flow (SBF), plasma NO metabolites (NO(x)), and plasma catecholamine levels were monitored. SMF at 5 mT, but not 1 mT, significantly suppressed and retarded the early stage development of hypertension for several weeks, compared with the age matched, unexposed (sham exposed) control. Exposure to 5 mT resulted in reduced plasma NO(x) concentrations together with lower levels of angiotensin II and aldosterone in SHR. These results suggest that SMF may suppress and delay BP elevation via the NO pathways and hormonal regulatory systems.

Auton Neurosci. 2003 Apr 30;105(1):53-61.

Can extremely low frequency alternating magnetic fields modulate heart rate or its variability in humans?

Kurokawa Y, Nitta H, Imai H, Kabuto M.

Environmental Health Science Region, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Ibaraki Tsukuba 305-0053, Japan.kurokawa@nies.go.jp

Abstract

This study is a reexamination of the possibility that exposure to extremely low frequency alternating magnetic field (ELF-MF) may influence heart rate (HR) or its variability (HRV) in humans. In a wooden room (cube with 2.7-m sides) surrounded with wire, three series of experiments were performed on 50 healthy volunteers, who were exposed to MFs at frequencies ranging from 50 to 1000 Hz and with flux densities ranging from 20 to 100 microT for periods ranging from 2 min to 12 h. In each experiment, six indices of HR/HRV were calculated from the RR intervals (RRIs): average RRI, standard deviation of RRIs, power spectral components in three frequency ranges (pVLF, pLF and pHF), and the ratio of pLF to pHF. Statistical analyses of results revealed no significant effect of ELF-MFs in any of the experiments, and suggested that the ELF-MF to which humans are exposed in their daily lives has no acute influence on the activity of the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS) that modulates the heart rate.

Klin Med (Mosk). 2003;81(1):24-7.  

Clinico-functional efficacy of medicinal and photon stabilization in patients with angina pectoris.

[Article in Russian]

Vasil'ev AP, Senatorov IuN, Strel'tsova NN, Gorbunova TIu.

Modification of erythrocytic membrane and the trend in clinicofunctional indices were studied in 90 patients with angina of effort (FC I-IV) in the course of treatment with a combination of membranoprotective drugs (group 1), magneto-laser radiation (group 2) and imitation of laser radiation (group 3). In patients of groups 1 and 2 the treatment resulted in stabilization of cell membrane accompanied with a hypotensive effect and increased exercise tolerance due to more effective cardiac performance.

Saudi Med J. 2002 May;23(5):517-20.  

The effect of magneto-treated blood autotransfusion on central hemodynamic values and cerebral circulation in patients with essential hypertension.

Alizade IG, Karayeva NT.

Department of Cardiology, Hospital of Ministry of Internal Affairs, Baku, Azerbaijan.

OBJECTIVE: The work was carried out to study the effect of magneto-treated blood autotransfusion on the values of central and cerebral hemodynamics in patients with essential hypertension.

METHODS: Sixty-six patients with stage II essential hypertension aged 31-60 years who underwent magneto-treated blood autotransfusion were evaluated and treated, at the Cardiology Department, Hospital of Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Azerbaijan Republic, over a period of 8 years. The diagnosis was based on clinical examination and generally accepted criteria of essential hypertension stages proposed in 1978 by the World Health Organization.

RESULTS: Sixty-six patients with stage II essential hypertension with stable drop in blood pressure, simultaneously showed a positive clinical effect. Central hemodynamic changes in the process of magneto-treated blood autotransfusion were different and depended on the initial state of circulation. High clinical effect showed the patients with hyperkinetic type of hemodynamics. Their blood pressure were significantly lower than the patients with hypokinetic type of circulation.

CONCLUSION: Rheoencephalographic study demonstrated that magneto-treated blood autotransfusion possessed insignificant effect on cerebral hemodynamics, mainly expressed by the reduction of arterial blood flow tension in the patients with hypokinetic type of hemodynamics.

Ter Arkh. 2001;73(10):70-3.  

Changes in blood rheological properties in patients with hypertension.

[Article in Russian]

Shabanov VA, Terekhina EV, Kostrov VA.

AIM: To study hemorheology in patients with essential hypertension (EH), to improve EH treatment in terms of blood rheology.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood rheology, microcirculation, lipid plasm spectrum, central hemodynamics were studied in 90 patients with mild and 83 patients with moderate or severe EH as well as 30 healthy controls before and after treatment (hypotensive drugs, essential phospholipids, intravenous laser blood radiation, plasmapheresis).

RESULTS: Hemorrheological disorders (subnormal deformability of the red cells and elastoviscosity of their membranes, disk-spherical transformation and hyperaggregation of blood cells, high dynamic viscosity) correlated with the disease severity, arterial pressure and total peripheral vascular resistance. Long-term (1-1.5 years) hypotensive therapy, especially with combination of beta-blockers with diuretics, has a negative effect on blood rheology. Optimisation of EH treatment in terms of blood rheology consists in using essential phospholipids in stable hypertension, intravenous laser radiation in complicated hypertension, plasmapheresis in drug-resistant hypertension. Such an approach not only significantly improves hemorheology but also provides good clinical and hypotensive effects in 75-80% patients.

CONCLUSION: Blood viscodynamics should be taken into consideration in individual treatment of hypertensive patients.

Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2001;(6):20-3.

Influence of low-frequency magnetotherapy and HF-puncture on the heart rhythm in hypertensive workers exposed to vibration.

[Article in Russian]

Drobyshev VA, Loseva MI, Sukharevskaia TM, Michurin AI.

Abstract

The authors present results concerning use of low-frequency magnetic fields and HF-therapy for correction of vegetative homeostasis in workers with variable length of service, exposed to vibration, having early forms of arterial hypertension. The most positive changes of vegetative status and central hemodynamics are seen in workers with low length of service.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2001 Mar-Apr;(2):11-5.  

Therapeutic complexes of physical factors in mild arterial hypertension.

[Article in Russian]

Kniazeva TA, Nikiforova TI.

Three therapeutic complexes were compared clinically in patients with mild arterial hypertension. Complex 1 consisted of dry air–radon baths, bicycle exercise and exposure of the renal projection area to decimetric electromagnetic field. Its efficacy was 90%, mechanism of the hypotensive action is reduction of enhanced activity of the sympathico-adrenal and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems, improvement of water-mineral metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Complex 2 consisted of dry effervescent baths, anaprilin electrophoresis with sinusoidal modulated currents and exposure of the renal projection area to low-frequency alternating magnetic field. Its efficacy was 80%. It affects renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, water-mineral metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Complex 3 consisted of electric sleep, laser therapy and general sodium chloride baths. Its efficacy was 63%. The effect was due to inhibition of high sympathico-adrenal system.

Klin Med (Mosk). 2000;78(3):23-5.  

Characteristics of microcirculation and vascular responsiveness in elderly patients with hypertension and ischemic heart disease.

[Article in Russian]

Abramovich SG.

Microcirculation and vascular responsiveness were studied in 52 patients with arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease versus 48 healthy elderly persons. The patients were found to have defects of the end blood flow in all links of microcirculation, longer and more severe vasoconstriction of conjunctival and skin vessels in response to norepinephrine and cold stimulation tests.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2000 May-Jun;(3):9-11.  

The use of low-frequency magnetotherapy and EHF puncture in the combined treatment of arterial hypertension in vibration-induced disease.

[Article in Russian]

Drobyshev VA, Filippova GN, Loseva MI, Shpagina LA, Shelepova NV, Zhelezniak MS.

Combination of EHF therapy + magnetotherapy + drugs results in faster and persistent hypotensive and analgetic effect compared to standard drug therapy, potentiates action of vascular drugs on cerebral and peripheral circulation, reduces dose of hypotensive drugs in patients with arterial hypertension and vibration disease.

Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2000;28(1-2):339-47.

The use of millimeter wavelength electromagnetic waves in cardiology.

Lebedeva AYu.

2nd Department of urgent cardiology at State Clinical Hospital, Russian State Medical University, Moscow.

Abstract

This paper concerns the problems of the use of millimeter wavelength electromagnetic waves for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The prospects for this use are considered.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1999 Sep-Oct;(5):7-9.  

The characteristics of the geroprotective action of magnetotherapy in elderly patients with combined cardiovascular pathology.

[Article in Russian]

Abramovich SG, Fedotchenko AA, Koriakina AV, Pogodin KV, Smirnov SN.

Central hemodynamics, diastolic and pumping functions of the heart, myocardial reactivity, microcirculation and biological age of cardiovascular system were studied in 66 elderly patients suffering from hypertension and ischemic heart disease. The patients received systemic magnetotherapy which produced a geroprotective effect as shown by improved microcirculation, myocardial reactivity, central hemodynamics reducing biological age of cardiovascular system and inhibiting its ageing.

Neuropsychobiology. 1998 Nov;38(4):251-6.  

No effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on heart rate variability during human sleep.

Mann K, Roschke J, Connemann B, Beta H.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz, Germany.

The influence of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields emitted by digital mobile radio telephones on heart rate during sleep in healthy humans was investigated. Beside mean RR interval and total variability of RR intervals based on calculation of the standard deviation, heart rate variability was assessed in the frequency domain by spectral power analysis providing information about the balance between the two branches of the autonomic nervous system. For most parameters, significant differences between different sleep stages were found. In particular, slow-wave sleep was characterized by a low ratio of low- and high-frequency components, indicating a predominance of the parasympathetic over the sympathetic tone. In contrast, during REM sleep the autonomic balance was shifted in favor of the sympathetic activity. For all heart rate parameters, no significant effects were detected under exposure to the field compared to placebo condition. Thus, under the given experimental conditions, autonomic control of heart rate was not affected by weak-pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1998 Jul-Aug;(4):31-6.  

The combined action of infrared radiation and permanent and alternating magnetic fields in experimental atherosclerosis.

[Article in Russian]

Zubkova SM, Varakina NI, Mikhailik LV, Bobkova AS, Maksimov EB.

Paravertebral exposure to infrared radiation (0.87 micron, 5 mW) and permanent magnetic field in combination with one- and two-semiperiodic alternative magnetic fields (50 Hz, 15-30 mT) was studied in respect to the action on adaptive reactions in animals with experimental atherosclerosis. Complex consisting of infrared radiation, permanent magnetic field and one-semiperiodic pulse alternative magnetic field was most effective in restoration of vasomotor-metabolic and immune disturbances accompanying development of atherosclerosis.

Bioelectromagnetics. 1998;19(2):98-106.

Nocturnal exposure to intermittent 60 Hz magnetic fields alters human cardiac rhythm.

Sastre A, Cook MR, Graham C.

Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA. Asastre@mriresearch.org

Abstract

Heart rate variability (HRV) results from the action of neuronal and cardiovascular reflexes, including those involved in the control of temperature, blood pressure and respiration. Quantitative spectral analyses of alterations in HRV using the digital Fourier transform technique provide useful in vivo indicators of beat-to-beat variations in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity. Recently, decreases in HRV have been shown to have clinical value in the prediction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. While previous studies have shown that exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields alters mean heart rate, the studies reported here are the first to examine effects of exposure on HRV. This report describes three double-blind studies involving a total of 77 human volunteers. In the first two studies, nocturnal exposure to an intermittent, circularly polarized magnetic field at 200 mG significantly reduced HRV in the spectral band associated with temperature and blood pressure control mechanisms (P = 0.035 and P = 0.02), and increased variability in the spectral band associated with respiration (P = 0.06 and P = 0.008). In the third study the field was presented continuously rather than intermittently, and no significant effects on HRV were found. The changes seen as a function of intermittent magnetic field exposure are similar, but not identical, to those reported as predictive of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the changes resemble those reported during stage II sleep. Further research will be required to determine whether exposure to magnetic fields alters stage II sleep and to define further the anatomical structures where field-related interactions between magnetic fields and human physiology should be sought.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1998 Jan-Feb;(1):16-8.  

A comparative evaluation of the effect of an extremely high-frequency electromagnetic field on cerebral hemodynamics in hypertension patients exposed in different reflexogenic areas.

[Article in Russian]

Sokolov BA, Bezruchenko SV, Kunitsyna LA.

A single session and multiple sinocarotid and temporal exposures to EHF electromagnetic field in patients with stage I and II hypertension had different effects on cerebral circulation Variants of the above treatment are proposed.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1997 Jan-Feb;(1):8-11.  

Prognostic criteria of the efficacy of magnetic and magnetic-laser therapy in patients with the initial stages of hypertension.

[Article in Russian]

Zadionchenko VS, Sviridov AA, Adasheva TV, Demicheva OIu, Bagatyrova KM, Beketova IL.

Study of the efficacy of a course of exposures to travelling pulsed magnetic field and magnetic laser sessions in 97 patients with stages I-II essential hypertension showed a high efficacy of travelling pulsed magnetic field in patients with hyperkinetic hemodynamics and initially just slightly shifted blood rheology and platelet hemostasis. Magnetic laser therapy is more effective in patients with eukinetic and hypokinetic hemodynamics and initially sharply expressed disorders of blood rheology and platelet hemostasis.

Biofizika. 1996 Jul-Aug;41(4):944-8.  

Effect of a "running" pulse magnetic field on certain humoral indicators and physical ability to work in patients with neurocirculatory hypo- and hypertension.

[Article in Russian]

Orlov LL, Pochechueva GA, Makoeva LD.

The influence of "running" impulse magnetic field in patients with neurocirculatory hypo- and hypertension was studied. It has been determined that magnetotherapy in all patients increased physical load tolerability and at the same time produced different effects on hemodynamics (lowering blood pressure in hypertension and increasing it in hypotension). In patients with neurocirculatory hypotension the slightly expressed positive clinical effect was obtained, that makes "running" impulse magnetic field therapy useless in this pathology. At the same time in patients with neurocirculatory hypertension "running" impulse magnetic field therapy resulted in significant improvement of physical tolerability, improvement of patients general condition, blood pressure decrease, lowering of pressor power generation concentration, correcting effect on aldosterone blood content. These data witness for the usefulness of this method in treatment of patients with neurocirculatory hypertension.

Ter Arkh. 1996;68(5):63-7.  

The therapeutic correction of disorders in thrombocyte-vascular hemostasis and of changes in the rheological properties of the blood in patients with arterial hypertension.

[Article in Russian]

Zadionchenko VS, Bagatyrova KM, Adasheva TV, Timofeeva NIu, Zaporozhets TP.

158 patients with essential hypertension received beta-adrenoblockers and were exposed to travelling impulse magnetic field, magnetolaser radiation. The study of platelet-vessel hemostasis and blood rheology revealed a relation of good clinical response and increased exercise tolerance with initial platelet dysfunction and rheological disorders which underwent positive changes in the course of treatment

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1996 Mar-Apr;(2):5-8.  

The effect of exposure to magnetics and lasers on the clinical status and the electrophysiological indices of the heart in patients with cardiac arrhythmias.

[Article in Russian]

Budnar' LN, Antiuf'ev VF, Oranskii IE, Bekhter TV.

Magnetolaser radiation has a considerable influence on electrophysiological condition of the sinus node and sinoatrial zone. There are cases when patients with sick sinus syndrome get rid of arrhythmia. The treatment is safe and promising for further studies.

Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 1996;155(5):37-9.  

The potentials of laser and electromagnetic-laser therapy in the treatment of patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans of the vessels of the lower extremities.

[Article in Russian]

Galimzianov FV.

A comparative analysis of the laser and electromagnetic laser therapy was performed in the complex treatment of patients with obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremity vessels. Laser treatment exerts a therapeutic effect related with its influence upon microcirculation. The effectiveness of complex treatment becomes higher when using a combination of laser therapy with the impulse electromagnetic therapy of complex modulation at the expense of improvement of the regional blood circulation in all links of the vasculature.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1996 Mar-Apr;(2):8-10.  

The effect of a low-frequency alternating magnetic field on the autonomic system in children with primary arterial hypertension.

[Article in Russian]

Konova OM, Khan MA.

The paper provides cardiointervalographic data assessing autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in children with primary arterial hypertension exposed to low-frequency alternating magnetic field. Favourable effects of such magnetotherapy manifest in attenuation of sympathetic and vagotonic symptoms.

Lik Sprava. 1996 Jan-Feb;(1-2):58-62.  

The clinico-biochemical, functional, immunological and cellular characteristics of the body reactions in patients with the initial stages of hypertension to the effect of a magnetic field.

[Article in Ukrainian]

Myloslavs'kyi DK, Koval' SM, Sheremet MS.

The article presents a comprehensive evaluation of major clinical, laboratory and functional indices in the time course of magnetotherapy as well as during administration of such treatments. The most promising alternative appears to be that involving the use of immunologic and cellular parameters as markers of efficacy of therapeutic action of magnetic fields in early stages of hypertensive disease. Causes for effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the above treatment option are analyzed, approaches to eliminating those are outlined, the main indications and contraindications are determined, merits and demerits of magnetotherapy are drawn attention to.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1994 May-Jun;(3):10-2.  

The effect of the joint use of plasmapheresis and magnetic treatment of the blood on the indices of blood rheology and hemodynamics in hypertension patients.

[Article in Russian]

Alizade IG, Karaeva NT.

The results are presented obtained on combined application of plasmapheresis and magnetic blood treatment as regards hemorheology and hemodynamics in 41 patients with essential hypertension stage II. The course introduction of the above combined treatment led to positive shifts in arterial pressure irrespective of the patients' hemodynamic type, in blood density, elasticity and dynamic properties.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1994 Jan-Feb;(1):8-9.  

The efficacy of low-intensity exposures in hypertension.

[Article in Russian]

Kniazeva TA, Otto MP, Markarov GS, Donova OM, Markarova IS.

One hundred hypertensive subjects with labile and stable disease were exposed to low-intensity low-frequency electrostatic field generated by the unit "Infita-A". In labile hypertension, the field produces a hypotensive effect, improves myocardial contractility, increases myocardial and coronary reserves due to reduced peripheral resistance and stimulation of myocardial propulsion. Therapeutic response to the treatment is attributed to normalization of deep brain structure functioning.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1994 Mar-Apr;(2):18-20.  

The effect of a low-frequency magnetic field on erythrocyte membrane function and on the prostanoid level in the blood plasma of children with parasystolic arrhythmia.

[Article in Russian]

Vasil'eva EM, Danilova NV, Smirnov IE, Kupriianova OO, Gordeeva GF.

As shown by clinical and biochemical evidence on 23 parasystolic children, the treatment with low-frequency magnetic field improves humoral and cellular processes participating in cardiac rhythm regulation. There is activation of Ca, Mg-ATPase in the red cells, a reduction of plasma thromboxane levels. Red cell phospholipid composition insignificantly change. Further courses of magnetotherapy may lower the risk of recurrent arrhythmia.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1993 Sep-Oct;(5):4-9.

Changes in intracellular regeneration and the indices of endocrine function and cardiac microcirculation in exposure to decimeter waves.

[Article in Russian]

Korolev IuN, Geniatulina MS, Popov VI.

Abstract

An electron-microscopic study of rabbit heart with experimental myocardial infarction revealed that extracardiac exposure to decimetric waves (DW) activated intracellular regeneration in the myocardium. This was associated with enhanced circulation and endocrine activity in the heart. Most pronounced regeneration was registered in adrenal exposure, the effect of the parietal exposure being somewhat less.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1993 Sep-Oct;(5):22-5.  

The use of magnetics and laser therapy in treating obliterating vascular disease of the extremities.

[Article in Russian]

Kirillov IuB, Shval'b PG, Lastushkin AV, Sigaev AA, Kachinskii AE, Shashkova SN.

The paper presents the results of treatment received by 60 patients suffering from lower limb vascular obliteration stage IIA-III. The treatment involved combined use of magnetic field and laser irradiation. Peripheral circulation and central hemodynamics were evaluated rheographically and using ultrasound Doppler sphygmomanometry. Combined application of the above two modalities produced a greater effect on central hemodynamics compared to them introduced alone.

Ter Arkh. 1993;65(1):44-9.  

The comparative efficacy of nondrug and drug methods of treating hypertension.

[Article in Russian]

Ivanov SG.

Effectiveness of some physical therapeutic factors (constant magnetic field, impulse currents) and new hypotensive drugs (tobanum, prinorm, ormidol, minipress, arifon, arilix) was compared in the treatment of essential hypertension stage II. It is suggested that nonpharmaceutical therapy can regulate functions, correct hemodynamic and microcirculatory disorders, produce therapeutic effect without side effects typical for drugs.

Lik Sprava. 1992 May;(5):40-3.  

The effect of combined treatment with the use of magnetotherapy on the systemic hemodynamics of patients with ischemic heart disease and spinal osteochondrosis.

[Article in Russian]

Dudchenko MA, Vesel'skii ISh, Shtompel' VIu.

The authors examined 66 patients with ischemic heart disease and concomitant cervico-thoracic osteochondrosis and 22 patients without osteochondrosis. Differences were revealed in values of the systemic hemodynamics with prevalence of the hypokinetic type in patients with combined pathology. Inclusion of magnetotherapy in the treatment complex of patients with ischemic heart disease and osteochondrosis favours clinical improvement, normalization of indices of central and regional blood circulation.

Lik Sprava. 1992 Oct;(10):32-5.  

A comparative evaluation of the efficacy of quantum methods for treating hypertension patients.

[Article in Ukrainian]

Nykul TD, Karpenko VV, Voitovych NS, Karmazyna OM.

A study is presented of the effect of laser and microwave resonance therapy on the hemodynamics and hemorheology in 56 patients with hypertensive disease. The hypotensive effect of intravascular laser therapy is related to the positive changes, reduction of blood viscosity and general peripheral vascular resistance. The effect of low molecular electromagnetic radiation on acupuncture points favoured clear reduction of peripheral vessel resistance. Combination of laser and microwave resonance therapy produces a positive effect due to potentiation of these methods and, thus, influencing the systems of hemodynamics, hemostasis and hemorheology.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1992 Sep-Dec;(5-6):13-8.

The effect of decimeter waves on the metabolism of the myocardium and its hormonal regulation in rabbits with experimental ischemia.

[Article in Russian]

Frenkel' ID, Zubkova SM, Liubimova NN, Popov VI.

Abstract

Biochemical and morphometric methods were employed to study the effect of decimetric waves (460 MHz, 10 and 120 mW/cm2) in cardiac and thyroid exposure on oxygen metabolism, myocardial microcirculation and contractility, thyroid and adrenal hormonal activity, kallikrein-kinin system activity in rabbits with experimental myocardial ischemia. Hypoxia discontinued in all the treatment regimens, but the exposure of the heart (field density 10 mW/sm2) had the additional effect on lipid peroxidation which reduced in the serum and normalized in the myocardium, on myocardial contractility, kallikrein-kinin system and on the adrenal and thyroid hormones.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1992 May-Jun;(3):14-7.  

Magnetotherapy in obliterating vascular diseases of the lower extremities.

[Article in Russian]

Kirillov IuB, Shval'b PG, Lastushkin AV, Baranov VM, Sigaev AA, Zueva GV, Karpov EI.

The investigators have developed a polymagnetic system "Avrora-MK-01" employing running impulse magnetic field to treat diseases of the leg vessels by the action on peripheral capillary bed. At a pregangrene stage a positive effect on peripheral capillaries was achieved in 75-82% of the patients treated.

Kardiologiia. 1991 Feb;31(2):67-70.  

Optimization of the treatment of patients with hypertensive disease from the rheological viewpoint.

[Article in Russian]

Shabanov VA, Kitaeva ND, Levin GIa, Karsakov VV, Kostrov VA.

The efficacy of various modes of correcting rheological disorders (membrane-protective agents, laser irradiation, plasmapheresis was compared in hypertensive patients. In 30% of the patients, the conventional antihypertensive therapy was demonstrated to deteriorate hemorheological parameters, which was due to its atherogenic impact on the blood lipid spectrum. Essential phospholipids, laser irradiation, and plasmapheresis, which are supplemented to the multimodality therapy promote a significant improvement of hemorheological parameters, which makes it possible to recommend them for management of hypertensive patients with a stable (essential phospholipids), complicated (laser irradiation), and refractory (plasmapheresis) course.

Khirurgiia (Mosk). 1990 Nov;(11):41-3.  

Outpatient electromagnetic therapy combined with hyperbaric oxygenation in arterial occlusive diseases.

[Article in Russian]

Reut NI, Kononova TI.

The authors first applied hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) in the outpatient clinic in 1968. Barotherapy was conducted in 107 outpatients whose ages ranged from 27 to 80 years; they had various stages of the disease of 5- to 20-year history. In 70 patients treated for obliterating diseases of the vessels by HBO in a complex with magnetotherapy by means of magnetophors, the remission lasted 1-2 years; patients treated by HBO alone had a 3-8 month remission. A prolonged positive effect was produced in 64 patients. The suggested effective and safe method is an additional one to the existing means of treating this serious and progressive disease, which can be applied successfully in outpatient clinics.

   
Ter Arkh. 1990;62(9):71-4.  

The magnetotherapy of hypertension patients.

[Article in Russian]

Ivanov SG, Smirnov VV, Solov'eva FV, Liashevskaia SP, Selezneva LIu.

A study was made of the influence of the constant MKM2-1 magnets on patients suffering from essential hypertension. Continuous action of the magnetic field, created by such magnets, on the patients with stage II essential hypertension was noted to result in a decrease of arterial pressure without the occurrence of any side effects and in a simultaneous reduction of the scope of drug administration. Apart from that fact, magnetotherapy was discovered to produce a beneficial effect on the central hemodynamics and microcirculation. The use of the MKM2-1 magnets may be regarded as a feasible method of the treatment of essential hypertension patients at any medical institution.

Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter. 1989 May-Jun;(3):59-61.  

Changes of central hemodynamics in rats with spontaneous hypertension under the effect of a low-frequency magnetic field.

[Article in Russian]

Buiavykh AG, Stukanov AF.

It was established that a course of exposures of the renal region of rats with spontaneous hypertension to the effect of low-frequency magnetic field influenced the central hemodynamic parameters significantly, which was displayed by reduction of total peripheral vascular resistance and normalization of the cardiac output.