Antimicrobial Effects

Int J Food Microbiol. 2009 Apr 15;130(3):196-204. Epub 2009 Jan 30.

Synergistic effect of pulsed electric fields and CocoanOX 12% on the inactivation kinetics of Bacillus cereus in a mixed beverage of liquid whole egg and skim milk.

Pina-Pérez MC, <>Silva-Angulo AB,<> Rodrigo D, <>Martínez-López A.<>

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos, P.O. Box 73, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain. conpip@iata.csic.es

Abstract

With a view to extending the shelf-life and enhancing the safety of liquid whole egg/skim milk (LWE-SM) mixed beverages, a study was conducted with Bacillus cereus vegetative cells inoculated in skim milk (SM) and LWE-SM beverages, with or without antimicrobial cocoa powder. The beverages were treated with Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) technology and then stored at 5 degrees C for 15 days. The kinetic results were modeled with the Bigelow model, Weibull distribution function, modified Gompertz equation, and Log-logistic models. Maximum inactivation registered a reduction of around 3 log cycles at 40 kV/cm, 360 micros, 20 degrees C in both the SM and LWE-SM beverages. By contrast, in the beverages supplemented with the aforementioned antimicrobial compound, higher inactivation levels were obtained under the same treatment conditions, reaching a 3.30 log(10) cycle reduction. The model affording the best fit for all four beverages was the four-parameter Log-logistic model. After 15 days of storage, the antimicrobial compound lowered Bacillus cereus survival rates in the samples supplemented with CocoanOX 12% by a 4 log cycle reduction, as compared to the untreated samples without CocoanOX 12%. This could indicate that the PEF-antimicrobial combination has a synergistic effect on the bacterial cells under study, increasing their sensitivity to subsequent refrigerated storage.

Int J Food Microbiol. 2008 Dec 10;128(2):244-9. Epub 2008 Sep 4.

Enhanced bactericidal effect of enterocin AS-48 in combination with high-intensity pulsed-electric field treatment against Salmonella enterica in apple juice.

Martínez Viedma P,<> Sobrino López A, <>Ben Omar N,<> Abriouel H, <>Lucas López <>R<>, Valdivia E,<> Martín Belloso O,<> Gálvez A.<>

Area de Microbiología, Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Jaén, 23071-Jaén, Spain.

Abstract

The effect of the broad spectrum cyclic antimicrobial peptide enterocin AS-48 combination with high-intensity pulsed-electric field (HIPEF) treatment (35 kV/cm, 150 Hz, 4 micros and bipolar mode) was tested on Salmonella enterica CECT 915 in apple juice. A response surface methodology was applied to study the bactericidal effects of the combined treatment. The process variables were AS-48 concentration, temperature, and HIPEF treatment time. While treatment with enterocin AS-48 alone up to 60 microg/ml had no effect on the viability of S. enterica in apple juice, an increased bactericidal activity was observed in combination with HIPEF treatments. Survival fraction was affected by treatment time, enterocin AS48 concentration and treatment temperature. The combination of 100 micros of HIPEF treatment, 30 microg/ml of AS-48, and temperature of 20 degrees C resulted in the lowest inactivation, with only a 1.2-log reduction. The maximum inactivation of 4.5-log cycles was achieved with HIPEF treatment for 1000 micros in combination with 60 microg/ml of AS-48 and a treatment temperature of 40 degrees C. Synergism between enterocin AS-48 and HIPEF treatment depended on the sequence order application, since it was observed only when HIPEF was applied in the presence of previously-added bacteriocin. The combined treatment could improve the safety of freshly-made apple juice against S. enterica transmission.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2008 May;29(4):302-11.

Bacterial response to the exposure of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields.

Cellini L,<> Grande R,<> Di Campli E,<> Di Bartolomeo S, <>Di Giulio M,<> Robuffo I, <>Trubiani O, <>Mariggiò MA.<>

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University G. d’Annunzio, Chieti, Italy. l.cellini@unich.it<>

Abstract

To investigate the ability of prokaryotic microorganisms to activate strategies in adapting themselves to the environmental stress induced by exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF), cultures of Escherichia coli ATCC 700926 exposed at 50 Hz EMF (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mT), and the respective sham-exposed controls were studied for: the total and culturable counts, the viability status, the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, the morphological analysis, the genotypical and transcriptional profile. Exposed samples and controls displayed similar total and culturable counts, whereas an increased cell viability was observed in exposed samples re-incubated for 24 h outside of the solenoid compared to the corresponding controls. An exposure to 50 Hz EMF of 20-120 min produced a significant change of E. coli morphotype with a presence of coccoid cells also aggregated in clusters after re-incubation of 24 h outside of the solenoid. Atypical lengthened bacterial forms were also observed suggesting a probable alteration during cell division. No changes among DNA fingerprintings and some differences in RNA-AFLP analysis were observed for each 50 Hz EMF intensities evaluated. Our results indicate that an exposure to 50 Hz EMF acts as a stressing factor on bacteria which can represent a suitable model to investigate acute and chronic effects related to ELF-EMF exposure.

J Food Sci. 2008 Mar;73(2):M47-53.

Inactivation of Salmonella enterica Ser. Enteritidis in tomato juice by combining of high-intensity pulsed electric fields with natural antimicrobials.

Mosqueda-Melgar J,<> Raybaudi-Massilia RM, <>Martín-Belloso O.<>

Dept. of Food Technology, Univ. of Lleida, UTPV-CeRTA, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure, 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain.

Abstract

The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatment (35kV/cm, 4 mus pulse length in bipolar mode without exceeding 38 degrees C) as influenced by treatment time (200, 600, and 1000 micros) and pulse frequency (100, 150, and 200 Hz) for inactivating Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis inoculated in tomato juice was evaluated. Similarly, the effect of combining HIPEF treatment with citric acid (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%[wt/vol]) or cinnamon bark oil (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.2%, and 0.3%[vol/vol]) as natural antimicrobials against S. Enteritidis in tomato juice was also studied. Higher treatment time and lower pulse frequency produced the greater microbial inactivation. Maximum inactivation of S. Enteritidis (4.184 log(10) units) in tomato juice by HIPEF was achieved when 1000 micros and 100 Hz of treatment time and pulse frequency, respectively, were applied. However, a greater microbial inactivation was found when S. Enteritidis was previously exposed to citric acid or cinnamon bark oil for 1 h in tomato juice. Synergistic effects were observed in HIPEF and natural antimicrobials. Nevertheless, combinations of HIPEF treatment with 2.0% of citric acid or 0.1% of cinnamon bark oil were needed for inactivating S. Enteritidis by more than 5.0 log(10) units (5.08 and 6.04 log(10) reductions, respectively). Therefore, combinations of HIPEF with organic acids or essential oils seem to be a promising method to achieve the pasteurization in these kinds of products.

Rev Argent Microbiol. 2007 Jul-Sep;39(3):170-6.

Exploring the use of natural antimicrobial agents and pulsed electric fields to control spoilage bacteria during a beer production process.

Galvagno MA,<> Gil GR,<> Iannone LJ, <>Cerrutti P.<>

Laboratorio de Microbiología Industrial, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ingeniería, Pabellón de Industrias, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires, Argentina. mag@di.fcen.uba.ar

Abstract

Different natural antimicrobials affected viability of bacterial contaminants isolated at critical steps during a beer production process. In the presence of 1 mg/ml chitosan and 0.3 mg/ml hops, the viability of Escherichia coli in an all malt barley extract wort could be reduced to 0.7 and 0.1% respectively after 2 hour- incubation at 4 degrees C. The addition of 0.0002 mg/ml nisin, 0.1 mg/ml chitosan or 0.3 mg/ml hops, selectively inhibited growth of Pediococcus sp. in more than 10,000 times with respect to brewing yeast in a mixed culture. In the presence of 0.1 mg ml chitosan in beer, no viable cells of the thermoresistant strain Bacillus megaterium were detected. Nisin, chitosan and hops increased microbiological stability during storage of a local commercial beer inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum or Pediococcus sp. isolated from wort. Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) (8 kV/cm, 3 pulses) application enhanced antibacterial activity of nisin and hops but not that of chitosan. The results herein obtained suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds in isolation or in combination with PEF would be effective to control bacterial contamination during beer production and storage.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2006 Apr;27(3):226-32.

Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus in BCBL-1 cells.

Pica F,<> Serafino A,<> Divizia M, <>Donia D,<> Fraschetti M, <>Sinibaldi-Salimei P, <>Giganti MG, <>Volpi A.<>

Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy. pica@uniroma2.it

Abstract

Association between extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and human cancers is controversial, and few studies have been conducted on their influence on oncogenic viruses. We studied the effects of 1 mT, 50 Hz sine waves, applied for 24-72 h, on Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or HHV-8) in BCBL-1, a latently infected primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell line. ELF-EMF exposure did not affect the growth and viability of BCBL-1 cells, either stimulated or not with TPA. The total amount of KSHV DNA detected in ELF-EMF exposed cultures not stimulated with TPA did not differ from that of the unexposed controls (P = ns). However, in the presence of TPA stimulation, total KSHV DNA content was found higher in ELF-EMF exposed than in control BCBL-1 cultures (P = .024) at 72 h exposure, but not earlier. Viral DNA increase significantly correlated with increased mean fluorescence intensity/cell for the lytic antigen gp K8.1A/B (P < .01), but not with percentage of gp K8.1A/B-positive cells or of cells containing virions. Viral progeny produced under ELF-EMF exposure consisted mainly of defective viral particles.

J Food Prot. 2004 Nov;67(11):2596-602.

Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspended in orange juice using high-intensity pulsed electric fields.

Elez-Martinez P,<> Escola-Hernandez J, <>Soliva-Fortuny RC,<> Martin-Belloso O.<>

Department of Food Technology, UTPV-CeRTA, University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure, 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is often associated with the spoilage of fruit juices. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatment on the survival of S. cerevisiae suspended in orange juice. Commercial heat-sterilized orange juice was inoculated with S. cerevisiae (CECT 1319) (10(8) CFU/ml) and then treated by HIPEFs. The effects of HIPEF parameters (electric field strength, treatment time, pulse polarity, frequency, and pulse width) were evaluated and compared to those of heat pasteurization (90 degrees C/min). In all of the HIPEF experiments, the temperature was kept below 39 degrees C. S. cerevisiae cell damage induced by HIPEF treatment was observed by electron microscopy. HIPEF treatment was effective for the inactivation of S. cerevisiae in orange juice at pasteurization levels. A maximum inactivation of a 5.1-log (CFU per milliliter) reduction was achieved after exposure of S. cerevisiae to HIPEFs for 1,000 micros (4-micros pulse width) at 35 kV/cm and 200 Hz in bipolar mode. Inactivation increased as both the field strength and treatment time increased. For the same electric field strength and treatment time, inactivation decreased when the frequency and pulse width were increased. Electric pulses applied in the bipolar mode were more effective than those in the monopolar mode for destroying S. cerevisiae. HIPEF processing inactivated S. cerevisiae in orange juice, and the extent of inactivation was similar to that obtained during thermal pasteurization. HIPEF treatments caused membrane damage and had a profound effect on the intracellular organization of S. cerevisiae.

J Environ Sci (China). 2004;16(2):348-52.

Sterilization of Escherichia coli cells by the application of pulsed magnetic field.

Li M, <>Qu JH,<> Peng YZ.<>

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

The inactivation of microorganisms by pulsed magnetic field was studied. It was improved that the application of electromagnetic pulses evidently causes a lethal effect on E. coli cells suspended in phosphate buffer solution Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4 (0.334/0.867 mmol/L). Experimental results indicated that the survivability (N/N0; where N0 and N are the number of cells survived per milliliter before and after electromagnetic pulses application, respectively) of E. coli decreased with magnetic field intensity B and treatment time t. It was also found that the medium temperatures, the frequencies of pulse f, and the initial bacterial cell concentrations have determinate influences in destruction of E. coli cells by the application of magnetic pulses. The application of an magnetic intensity B = 160 mT at pulses frequency f= 62 kHz and treatment time t = 16 h result in a considerable destruction levels of E. coli cells (N/N0 = 10(-4)). Possible mechanisms involved in sterilization of the magnetic field treatment were discussed. In order to shorten the treatment time, many groups of parallel inductive coil were used. The practicability test showed that the treatment time was shortened to 4 h with the application of three groups of parallel coil when the survivability of E. coli cells was less than 0.01%; and the power consumption was about 0.2 kWh/m3.

Lik Sprava. 2004 Oct-Nov;(7):41-6.Links

Effect of magnetic and ultrasound therapy on clinical manifestations and general parameters of efficiency in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

[Article in Ukrainian]

Savchenko VI<>, Samosiuk IZ<>.

The authors have analized general efficiency coefficients of the treatment of 117 patients with the first diagnized pulmonary tuberculosis. The patients were divided into a control and main group. 61 patients of the main group at the initial stage of complex treatment in addition to a standard chemotherapy have recieved magnetic and ultrasound therapy. During the treatment the patients underwent complex clinical and X-ray examination. The patients of the main group have been detected to have better signs of recovering compared with the control group. The signs were the following: more rapid disappearing of main clinical symptoms, radiological marks of tuberculosis such as focal and infiltrative alterations and decay cavity closing, cessation of bacterioexcretion.

J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2003 May;85(4):588-93.

Electromagnetic augmentation of antibiotic efficacy in infection of orthopaedic implants.

Pickering SA<>, Bayston R<>, Scammell BE<>.

Academic Department of Orthopaedic and Fracture Surgery, Queen’s Medical Centre, Nottingham, England, UK.

Infection of orthopaedic implants is a significant problem, with increased antibiotic resistance of adherent ‘biofilm’ bacteria causing difficulties in treatment. We have investigated the in vitro effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on the efficacy of antibiotics in the treatment of infection of implants. Five-day biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis were grown on the tips of stainless-steel pegs.They were exposed for 12 hours to varying concentrations of gentamicin or vancomycin in microtitre trays at 37 degrees C and 5% CO2. The test group were exposed to a PEMF. The control tray was not exposed to a PEMF. After exposure to antibiotic the pegs were incubated overnight, before standard plating onto blood agar for colony counting. Exposure to a PEMF increased the effectiveness of gentamicin against the five-day biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis. In three of five experiments there was reduction of at least 50% in the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration. In a fourth experiment there was a two-log difference in colony count at 160 mg/l of gentamicin. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed an effect by a PEMF on the efficacy of gentamicin

J Food Prot. 2002 Oct;65(10):1623-7.

Effects of pulsed electric field processing and storage on the quality and stability of single-strength orange juice.

Ayhan Z<>, Zhang QH<>, Min DB<>.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA.

The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on microorganisms in orange juice and on the flavor and color of the juice during storage for 112 days at 4 and 22 degrees C were investigated. Single-strength orange juice was PEF processed at an electric field strength of 35 kV/cm for 59 micros and placed into sterilized glass bottles in a sanitary glove box. PEF-processed orange juice was microbiologically stable at 4 and 22 degrees C for 112 days. PEF processing resulted in significant increases in the hydrocarbons D-limonene, alpha-pinene, myrecene, and valencene (P < or = 0.05) but did not have any effect on octanal, decanal, ethyl butyrate, and linalool. The levels of hydrocarbon compounds did not change at 4 and 22 degrees C in 112 days. Octanal, decanal, ethyl butyrate, and linalool levels significantly decreased in 14 days at 4 degrees C and in 2 days at 22 degrees C. The decrease in these compounds did not have a significant effect on the sensory quality of the orange juice (P > or = 0.05). The microorganisms in PEF-processed orange juice, along with the flavor and color of the juice, remained stable at 4 degrees C for 112 days.

J Food Prot. 2002 Jul;65(7):1081-7.

Inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium in orange juice containing antimicrobial agents by pulsed electric field.

Liang Z<>, Mittal GS<>, Griffiths MW<>.

School of Engineering, University of Guelph Ontario, Canada.

Combinations of different hurdles, including moderately high temperatures (<60 degrees C), antimicrobial compounds, and pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment, to reduce Salmonella in pasteurized and freshly squeezed orange juices (with and without pulp) were explored. Populations of Salmonella Typhimurium were found to decrease with an increase in pulse number and treatment temperature. At a field strength of 90 kV/cm, a pulse number of 20, and a temperature of 45 degrees C, PEF treatment did not have a notable effect on cell viability or injury. At and above 46 degrees C, however, cell death and injury were greatly increased. Salmonella numbers were reduced by 5.9 log cycles in freshly squeezed orange juice (without pulp) treated at 90 kV/cm, 50 pulses, and 55 degrees C. When PEF treatment was carried out in the presence of nisin (100 U/ml of orange juice), lysozyme (2,400 U/ml), or a mixture of nisin (27.5 U/ml) and lysozyme (690 U/ml), cell viability loss was increased by an additional 0.04 to 2.75 log cycles. The combination of nisin and lysozyme had a more pronounced bactericidal effect than did either nisin or lysozyme alone. An additional Salmonella count reduction of at least 1.37 log cycles was achieved when the two antimicrobial agents were used in combination. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in cell death was attained by lowering the pH value; only cell injury increased. Inactivation by PEF was significantly more extensive (P < 0.05) in pasteurized orange juice than in freshly squeezed orange juice under the same treatment conditions. This increase might be due to the effect of the chemical composition of the juices.

Probl Tuberk. 2001;(2):11-2.

Very high frequency electromagnetic irradiation in multimodal treatment of patients with disseminated infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis.

[Article in Russian]

Iakovleva LP<>, Lineva ZE<>, Mozhokina GN<>.

Multimodality treatment involving very high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (VHFER) in combination with the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and sodium thiosulfate, which had been performed in 27 patients with disseminated infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, was effective. As compared to patients receiving chemotherapy in combination with electromagnetic radiation (n = 29) and routine chemotherapy alone (n = 29), these patients had more benefits from the multimodality treatment in terms of bacterial isolation cessation and reduced hospital stay by 1.5-2 months, minimal pneumofibrotic changes occurred in 63% of the patients. Combined VHFER and antioxidative therapy were found to exert a normalizing effect on lipid peroxidation and immunity.

Int J Food Microbiol. 2000 Sep 25;60(2-3):147-52. \

Effects of combined exposure of micrococcus luteus to nisin and pulsed electric fields.

Dutreux N<>, Notermans S<>, Gongora-Nieto MM<>, Barbosa-Canovas GV<>, Swanson BG<>.

TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute, AJ Zeist, The Netherlands.

Death and injury following exposure of Micrococcus luteus to nisin and pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment were investigated in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8, sigma = 4.8 ms/cm at 20 degrees C). Four types of experiment were carried out, a single treatment with nisin (100 IU/ml at 20 degrees C for 2 h), a single PEF treatment, a PEF treatment followed by incubation with nisin (as before) and addition of nisin to the bacterial suspension prior to the PEF treatment. The application of nisin clearly enhanced the lethal effect of PEF treatment. The bactericidal effect of nisin reduced viable counts by 1.4 log10 units. Treatment with PEF (50 pulses at 33 kV/cm) resulted in a reduction of 2.4 log10 units. PEF treatment followed by nisin caused a reduction of 5.2 log10 units in comparison with a 4.9 log10 units reduction obtained with nisin followed by PEF. Injury of surviving cells was investigated using media with different concentrations of salt. Sublethally damaged cells of M. luteus could not be detected by this means, following PEF treatment.

Probl Tuberk. 2000;(2):18-21.

Magnetic laser therapy in combination with lymphotropic drugs administration in treating teenagers with common forms of tuberculosis.

[Article in Russian]

Ovsiankina ES<>, Dobkin VG<>, Kobulashvili MG, <>Rusakova LI<>, Gubkina MF<>.

The paper shows the efficiency of combined use of magnetic laser therapy (MLT) and lymphotropic drug therapy in 40 teenagers with common forms of tuberculosis. The use of laser makes it possible to modify methods of regional lymphotropic therapy, to prolong its use and increase indications for it. MLT in combination with lymphotropic drug therapy accelerates positive changes and hence enhances the efficiency of tuberculosis treatment.

Int J Food Microbiol. 1999 Oct 1;51(1):7-17.

Inactivation of Listeria innocua in liquid whole egg by pulsed electric fields and nisin.

Calderon-Miranda ML<>, Barbosa-Canovas GV<>, Swanson BG<>.

Washington State University, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Pullman 99164-6120, USA.

Consumer demand for fresh-like products with little or no degradation of nutritional and organoleptic properties has led to the study of new technologies in food preservation. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a nonthermal preservation method used to inactivate microorganisms mainly in liquid foods. Microorganisms in the presence of PEF suffer cell membrane damage. Nisin is a natural antimicrobial known to disrupt cell membrane integrity. Thus the combination of PEF and nisin represents a hurdle for the survival of Listeria innocua in liquid whole egg (LWE). L. innocua suspended in LWE was subjected to two different treatments: PEF and PEF followed by exposure to nisin. The selected frequency and pulse duration for PEF was 3.5 Hz and 2 micros, respectively. Electric field intensities of 30, 40 and 50 kV/cm were used. The number of pulses applied to the LWE was 10.6, 21.3 and 32. The highest extent of microbial inactivation with PEF was 3.5 log cycles (U) for an electric field intensity of 50 kV/cm and 32 pulses. Treatment of LWE by PEF was conducted at low temperatures, 36 degrees C being the highest. Exposure of L. innocua to nisin following the PEF treatment exhibited an additive effect on the inactivation of the microorganism. Moreover, a synergistic effect was observed as the electric field intensity, number of pulses and nisin concentration increased. L. innocua exposed to 10 IU nisin/ml after PEF exhibited a decrease in population of 4.1 U for an electric field intensity of 50 kV/cm and 32 pulses. Exposure of L. innocua to 100 IU nisin/ml following PEF resulted in 5.5 U for an electric field intensity of 50 kV/cm and 32 pulses. The model developed for the inactivation of L. innocua by PEF and followed by exposure to nisin proved to be accurate (p = 0.05) when used to model the inactivation of the microorganism by PEF in LWE with 1.2 or 37 IU nisin/ml. The presence of 37 IU nisin/ml in LWE during the PEF treatment for an electric field intensity of 50 kV/cm and 32 pulses resulted in a decrease in the population of L. innocua of 4.4 U.

Probl Tuberk. 1997;(6):50-3.Links

Use of centimetric range microwave therapy in multimodality treatment of patients with destructive pulmonary tuberculosis.

[Article in Russian]

Savula MM<>, Kravchenko NS<>.

Centimeter microwave therapy (CMWT) was employed in the multimodality treatment of 50 patients with destructive pulmonary tuberculosis. Its results were compared with a matched control group comprising 43 patients. CMWT increased the rate of decay cavity closure, improved bronchial patency and prevented its deterioration. This was followed by improved lipid peroxidation, antioxidative activity, and an immunological responsiveness of the body.

Probl Tuberk. 1995;(6):17-20.

Significance of the functional state of blood phagocytes in the choice of optimal regime of EHF therapy of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

[Article in Russian]

Novikova LN<>, Kaminskaia GO<>, Efimova LN<>.

A trial entered 136 patients with active tuberculosis of the lungs. 86 patients received conventional chemotherapy and a course of microwave therapy. Control patients received chemotherapy alone. Phagocyte cell viability and NB-test served as assessment laboratory criteria. Millimetric waves in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis potentiate the treatment efficacy documented as more rapid infiltration resolution and cavern closure through the mechanism of normalization of phagocyte cell function. The choice of wave length is principal: 5.6 mm waves affect phagocyte function negatively, 6.4 mm waves produce more significant positive effect in young patients with new local lesions while 7.1 mm waves in older patients and in severe involvement. In vitro radiation of the patients’ blood using different wave lengths and subsequent performance of NB-test provides objective information for choice of optimal treatment regimen.

Probl Tuberk. 1994;(4):2-4.

Effectiveness of chemotherapy combined with ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic radiation for the treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

[Article in Russian]

Khomenko AG<>, Chukanov VI<>, Novikova LN<>.

A procedure was developed to determine the optimum wavelength used for each patient individually. Ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic radiation was studied in 54 patients with various pulmonary tuberculosis forms for its impact on the course of the disease. Treatment was performed by using a YAVOR device at 6.4 and 7.1 mm. Is was found that following 10 sessions of UHF therapy used in combination with specific chemicals, caverns were closed in 50% of patients 2-3 months after therapy and in the controls 5-6 months later. Infiltrates in the lesion areas were resolved 2-3 weeks after UHF exposure, whereas in the controls 1-2 months following drug therapy alone.

ASAIO J. 1994 Jul-Sep;40(3):M371-6.

Magnetic field enhancement of antibiotic activity in biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Benson DE<>, Grissom CB<>, Burns GL<>, Mohammad SF<>.

Artificial Heart Research Laboratory, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.

Abstract

Device related infection initiated by biofilm bacteria are often difficult to resolve with antimicrobial therapy. Study results indicate that application of static magnetic fields may enhance the activity of gentamicin against biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa adherent to a polymer substrate. Results indicate a maximal reduction of 86.5 +/- 7.2% (n = 6) in the number of adherent viable bacteria compared with a control for samples exposed to a 5 gauss (G) magnetic field and gentamicin. The effect appears to be limited to magnetic fields between 5 and 20 G. Experiments using glass, Chronoflex (Polymedica, Golden, CO), Biomer (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ), and polystyrene substrate showed that the effect was independent of substrate surface. Autoradiograms from In111 uptake experiments showed that bacteria colonizing the substrate surface were significantly reduced in samples subjected to a magnetic field and gentamicin.

Can J Microbiol

Biological effects of magnetic fields: studies with microorganisms.

Moore R.

Five bacteria and one yeast were grown in magnetic fields of 50-900 gauss with frequencies of 0-0.3 HZ and square, triangular, or sine waveform. Growth of these microorganisms could be stimulated or inhibited depending upon the field strength and frequency of the pulsed magnetic field. Spore germination and mutation frequency were unaffected by the magnetic fields used in this study.